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Posted May 30, 2001
Authored by Duane Dunston | Site linuxsecurity.com

Encrypted Tunnels using SSH and MindTerm - This paper will discuss using Secure Shell (SSH) and MindTerm to secure organizational communication across the Internet. Easy to setup and reliable software need to be used in order to allow the inexperienced users the ability to quickly establish secure communication channels.

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Encrypted Tunnels using SSH and MindTerm

By Duane Dunston 5/14/2001 1:54
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Businesses, schools, and home users need more secure network services now more than ever. As
online business increases, more people continue to access critical company information over
insecure networks. Companies are using the Internet as a primary means to communicate with
travelling employees in their country and abroad, sending documents to various field offices
around the world, and sending unencrypted email; this communication can contain a wealth of
information that any malicious person can potentially intercept and sell or give to a rival
company. Good security policies for both users and network administrators can help to
minimize the problems associated with a malicious person intercepting or stealing critical
information within their organization. This paper will discuss using Secure Shell (SSH) and
MindTerm to secure organizational communication across the Internet.

Home users and business travelers are accessing company resources and sending sensitive data
over insecure networks. This opens up a whole new area of security issues for System
Administrators (Securing the home office sensible and securely), especially since the number
of corporate users from home with high-speed access is expected to "more than double from 24
million in 2000 to 55 million by 2005" (Broadband Access to Increase in Workplace). The
increase in the number of airports and hotels offering internet access, especially high-speed
access, is increasing and is expected to grow in the future (Broadband Moving On Up). This
can also leave a door wide open for a malicious person to hijack or view a person's Internet
traffic and access their companies. The malicious person may not be interested in the work
the employee is doing but just want access to a high-speed server to launch attacks, store
files, or other uses. Business people are really at high risk because they don't know who's
monitoring their Internet connection in the hotel, airport, or anywhere in their travels.
Users of the new high-speed connections are usually not taught proper security protocols and
some companies don't have the staff to help the home user and business traveler set up secure
communication. Individual users and, surprisingly, some companies have a mentality that "I
don't have anything people want". This is very disturbing considering the amount of sensitive
information that travels across the Internet from an employee's home or from travelers.
What's more disturbing is the availability of free software to perform these kinds of attacks
and the software's ease of use. Dsniff (http://www.monkey.org/~dugsong/dsniff/) is a freely
available program that has utilities that can allow anyone
with a networked computer to highjack a local network and monitor what others are doing and
grab passwords and other sensitive data. In his book Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a
Networked World, Bruce Schneier states that Technique Propagation is one of the main threats
to network security: "The Internet is...a perfect medium for propagating successful attack
tools. Only the first attacker has to be skilled; everyone else can use his software"
(Schneier). The purpose of this paper is not how to secure computers but how to set up
virtual tunnels to perform secure communication, whether sending documents or sending email.
Business travelers should read Jim Purcell, Frank Reid, and Aaron Weissenfluh's articles on
travel security http://www.sans.org/infosecFAQ/travel/travel_list.htm. Home users with
high-speed access should read Ted Tang's article at
(http://www.sans.org/infosecFAQ/start/free.htm) for information on how to secure your
computers with high-speed access. I'd recommend the many resources available on www.sans.org,
www.securityfocus.com, www.linuxsecurity.com, or www.securityportal.com for tutorials on how
to secure your computers and servers.

The way to ensure that sensitive data is transmitted securely and quickly is to use encrypted
methods of data delivery. This can be by way of encrypted email, using secure web-based email
services, or establishing encrypted tunnels between two computers. Also, easy to setup and
reliable software need to be used in order to allow the inexperienced users the ability to
quickly establish secure communication channels. Taten Ylonen 's Secure Shell (www.ssh.com)
and MindBright Technology's (www.mindbright.se) MindTerm are a quick, easy to use, and
reliable solution for securing communication over the Internet.

SSH and MindTerm

SSH (Secure Shell) is a secure replacement for remote login and file transfer programs like
telnet, rsh, and ftp, which transmit data in clear, human-readable text. SSH uses a
public-key authentication method to establish an encrypted and secure connection from the
user's machine to the remote machine. When the secure connection is established then the
username, password, and all other information is sent over this secure connection. You can
read more details of how ssh works, the algorithms it uses, and the protocols implemented for
it to maintain a high level of security and trust at the ssh website: www.ssh.com. The
OpenBSD team has created a free alternative called OpenSSH available at: www.openssh.com. It
maintains the high security standards of the OpenBSD team and the IETF specifications for
Secure Shell (see the Secure Shell IETF drafts: http://www.ietf.org/ids.by.wg/secsh.html),
except it uses free public domain algorithms. SSH is becoming a standard for remote login
administration. It has become so popular that there are many ports of ssh to various
platforms and there are free clients available to login to an ssh server from many platforms
as well. See http://linuxmafia.com/pub/linux/security/ssh-clients for a list of clients and
Securityportal.com has an excellent two-part article on ssh and links to ports for different
platforms available at http://www.securityportal.com/research/ssh-part1.html. There are
programs that also use an ssh utility called Secure Copy (scp) in the background that provide
the same functionality of a full ftp client, like WinSCP (http://winscp.vse.cz) and the Java
SSH/SCP Client (http://www.isnetworks.com/ssh/), which has a modified scp interface for
MindTerm. Please read the licenses carefully to determine if you are legally allowed to
download ssh in your country. SSH is free for academic institutions please. Please read the
licenses available at the ssh.com website.

MindTerm is an ssh client written entirely in Java by MindBright Technology. One of the key
practices of developing security software is proper implementation of the underlying
algorithms and protocols it uses. MindBright Technology has implemented the ssh protocol very
well in this small application file. It is a self-contained archive that only needs to be
unzipped into a directory of your choice and it is ready to be used. It can be used as a
standalone program or as a web page applet or both. It is available at:
http://www.mindbright.se/download/. MindTerm is an excellent and inexpensive client to secure
communication to and from a local and remote location. The MindTerm program located at the
download address above is available free for non-commercial and academic use, commercial use
is available on a case to case basis. However, the modifications made by the ISNetwork
(www.isnetworks.net) team "is based on the MindTerm 1.21 codebase, which MindBright released
under the GPL [General Public License -- see http://www.gnu.org]. Since our version is
released under the GPL you can use it commercially for free" (Eckels). ISNetwork's
implementation has all the features of MindBright's MindTerm except it has a nicer scp
interface for more user-friendly file transfers. MindTerm does have some drawbacks in that it
doesn't support UDP tunneling. In order to secure UDP traffic, a program called Zebedee
(http://www.winton.org.uk/zebedee/) will work nicely. Zebedee's server and client program is
available for Windows and Linux platforms. It is freely distributed under the GPL License
too. You can connect to either Windows or Linux machines using Zebedee. MindTerm will not
check to see if your system is secure. It is up to the administrators and users to take care
of securing the computer systems. It is easy to implement and it is very effective at
maintaining the high level of security implemented in the ssh protocol. This paper will show
how easy it is to set up and establish secure communication channels for almost any user and
by almost any user. Documents, email, and other data communication can be easily and securely
sent to users a few feet away or around the world.

SSH and MindTerm will work together to use a technique called port forwarding. Port
forwarding is forwarding traffic from one host and a given port to another host and port. In
other words, the MindTerm application will open a port on the client's machine (local
machine) and any connection to that local port is forwarded to the remote host and its
listening port over an encrypted ssh session. Whether or not the connection is accepted
depends on the type of request you are sending to the remote host. For example, you wouldn't
forward POP requests to a remote host listening on port 21 because port 21 is reserved for
ftp requests. Port forwarding is also used to allow connections to a server that is behind a
firewall and/or has a private IP address. Essentially this is creating a Virtual Private
Network (VPN). A VPN is "a private data network that makes use of the public
telecommunication infrastructure, maintaining privacy through the use of a tunneling protocol
and security procedures" (www.whatis.com). The port-forwarding can only be done with TCP

Software installation

In order to follow along with this tutorial you will have to install a few packages. This
tutorial assumes you have ssh already installed on your server or workstation. If not then
you can read the documentation that comes with the ssh or the OpenSSH package for
installation instructions for your platform. For the examples that follow, OpenSSH was
installed on a RedHat 7.0 server and workstation. OpenSSH was installed on RedHat 6.0- 7.0
and worked the same. The client machine used in the following tutorial is a Windows 2000
machine. Windows 95/98, NT 4.0, NT 5.0, RedHat 6.0-7.0 workstation were all tested as client
machines and worked the same. On a side note, the exact same MindTerm jar archive was used on
all client systems tested.
1. SSH or OpenSSH
2. MindTerm
3. FTP Client - Any ftp client should work for this tutorial. Ws-FTP and Leech-ftp are the
two most popular for Windows.
4. Netscape Communicator - or any other mail client should work
5. Optional: NTOP
6. Optional: vlock

* Install NTOP to see how other TCP services can be encrypted as well. I downloaded the
latest rpm from http://www.rpmfind.net/linux/rpm2html/search.php?query=ntop
* Vlock is optional because users may do work from the console after they are
authenticated. However, if a user will only be using the tunnels then the command: vlock
-c can be typed at the console or it can be added to the users startup script so when the
user logs in, it will automatically lock their console.

Server configuration

First, make sure that your server is secure. Though traffic is encrypted as it travels over
the Internet, it can be sniffed if someone has root access on the local machine and uses a
program like ngrep (http://www.packetfactory.net/Projects/ngrep) to sniff traffic on a local
machine. For example, in conjunction with the dsniff program mentioned above, the following
command could sniff all traffic on the local interface network: ngrep -d lo. Securing the
server is, however, beyond the scope of this paper.

We'll use the POP (port 110), IMAP (port 143), SMTP (port 25), VNC (Virtual Network
Computing) (5901+), and NTOP (default port 3000) services for this example. All traffic will
be forwarded to each service's respective port on the remote host running the ssh server. All
services listening on the remote host listen on all interfaces, unless the service binds to a
specific port by default or if manually configured. In order to show how effective this
technique of tunneling over ssh is, we will only allow particular services to listen on the
local interface.

You don't have to change your current security configurations, however. We will use
tcp_wrappers, that is installed by default with RedHat 7.0 (and previous versions), to
connect to the network services. In the /etc/hosts.deny file add the following line:


And in your /etc/hosts.allow file add the following lines:

sshd : ALL
in.ftpd :
ipop3d :
imapd :

This sets sshd (the ssh server) to allow connections from anywhere any IP address. The other
services only allow connections from the local interface. You can verify this by configuring
a mail client to connect to your remote pop or imap server and/or an ftp client to connect to
your ftp server, right now. It won't allow you to connect. You'll also need to set up any
user accounts to allow access to these services. (Note: The setup above is only useful if the
services are only for internal use and remote users need to access the internal services to
send and receive email or transfer files. The services can be available for public use and be
encrypted with ssh and MindTerm.)

Client configuration

The only client configuration that is needed is to be sure that a Java Runtime Environment
(JRE) is installed for your platform. Windows and MacOS 8 and later have a JRE already
installed. It is recommended to install Sun's JRE on Windows. IBM has a list of ports of
JRE's to various plaforms:
http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/tools.nsf/dw/java-devkits-byname as well as Sun:
http://java.sun.com/cgi-bin/java-ports.cgi. (You don't need the entire Java package with the
debuggers and compilers you just need the Java Virtual Machine to run java applications.)
Also, for the tutorial that follows, unzip the MindTerm archive, MindBright's or ISNetwork's
implementation, archive into "c:\mindterm" for windows.

Creating the Tunnels

MindTerm can be started a few ways. If you have the JRE installed then you can double-click
on the mindtermfull.jar application file. Another way is to open up a dos-shell and type the

jview -cp c:\mindterm\mindtermfull.jar mindbright.application.MindTerm or javaw -cp
c:\mindterm\mindtermfull.jar mindbright.application.MindTerm
java -cp c:\mindterm\mindtermfull.jar mindbright.application.MindTerm
(jview is used if you are using Windows and you don't download the JRE. Javaw comes with
the Windows JRE download and is used because a dos-shell box won't be needed in order to
run MindTerm so there is one less window open)

This will start the MindTerm program and you can then type the server name when prompted and
it will prompt you to "Save as Alias". You can type a short server name so when you start the
applet again you can simply type the "Alias" you created. You will then be prompted for your
login name. After you type it, hit enter and a dialog box will appear informing you that the
host doesn't exist and prompt you to create it. Click "Yes". Another dialog will appear
prompting you if you want to add that host to your "known_host" file. Click "Yes". Then you
are prompted for your password. Type your password and hit enter. If you supplied the proper
username and password then you should be at a command line on the server you specified.

Creating the Tunnels

We'll create a tunnel to the POP and SMTP server, first. After you have successfully logged
in (and optionally enabled vlock) click on "Tunnels" on the menu and then click "Basic". A
dialog box will appear. Add the following settings to each box, respectively:

Local port: 2010
Remote Hosts: Your remote host (this should be the server running the sshd server).
Remote port: 110
Now click "Add".
A dialog box should appear stating "The tunnel is now open and operational". (Note: If
you select a port that is already open an error message will appear stating "Could not
open tunnel. Error creating tunnel. Error setting up local forward on port XXXX, Address
in use.) Click "OK" and the tunnel configuration should appear in the box now. Click
"Close Dialog". Open up your email client's options or preferences menu. We'll use
Netscape Messenger for this example.

* Open up Netscape
* Click on the "Edit" menu ---> "Preferences".
* On the left column click on "Mail & Newsgroups", if the contents aren't already
* Click on "Identity" and type your information in each box.
* Click on "Mail Servers" in the left column. The default install of Netscape has "mail" in
the box underneath "Incoming mail servers".
* Click on "mail"
* Click "Edit" to the right of that box and a dialog box should appear
* If POP is not already selected in that drop down box, select it now.
* In the "Server Name" box type "localhost:2010" (remember we chose that local port in the
MindTerm tunnel creation menu to forward to the remote servers POP (110) port) and then
your username. Set any other options as you see fit.
* Click "OK".
* In the box "Outgoing mail (SMTP) server" type your smtp server name and underneath that
type your "Outgoing mail server user name".
* Click "OK". (Don't do anything to the "Use Secure Socket Layer (SSL) or TLS for outgoing
messages" option).
* Now click on "Communicator" on the menu and
* Click "Messenger"
* You should then be prompted for your password. Type your password and hit enter. If you
have mail you should now be able to read it.

As long as you have a MindTerm ssh session open, this should work with most email clients.
Remember that the remote server name or POP server name will be "localhost:". If you are
asked for the POP server and port seperately then add it accordingly. Any connections to the
local port 2010, in this example, will be forwarded to the remote hosts' port 110. If you
configure an ftp client to connect to the localhost port 2010, right now it wouldn't work.
Why? The POP protocol doesn't understand ftp protocol. Only POP clients can be forwarded to
the localhost port 2010 for the tunnel to be effective. A POP server isn't any good if you
don't have an smtp server. If you have a mail program like Postfix (www.postfix.net), Qmail
(www.qmail.org), or Sendmail (www.sendmail.org) then a secure tunnel can be created to it, as

With the MindTerm client still running click on "Tunnels" again then "Basic" and add these
Local Port: 2025 (just type over the settings set from what we did previously)
Remote Host: Your remote smtp server.
Remote Port: 25
Click "Add".
Then click "OK" on the confirmation menu. Now smtp should be added to the list underneath
the settings for POP. In the Netscape Messenger mail server settings add: localhost:2025
as your "Outgoing mail (SMTP) server"

All email you send to the remote host will be encrypted. However, if you send mail to someone
outside of the remote host's mail server, your email will be encrypted only from your local
machine to your remote smtp server. From the remote smtp server to any other host, will not
be encrypted, unless you've configured a tunnel to the other hosts.

To enable encrypted ftp sessions add these settings to a new tunnel.
Local Port: 2021 (just type over the settings set from what we did previously)
Remote Host: Your remote ftp server.
Remote Port: 21
Click "Add".
Then click "OK" on the confirmation menu. Now ftp (see the leech ftp example and
wsftp--picture 1 and picture 2) should be added to the list underneath the settings for

Imap settings:
Local Port: 2043 (just type over the settings set from what we did previously)
Remote Host: Your remote imap server.
Remote Port: 143
Click "Add".
Then click "OK" on the confirmation menu. Now ftp should be added to the list underneath
the settings for POP.

All these settings can be automated in a batch file. Simply add the following to a startup
script to automatically create a tunnel to your pop server after authentication:

jview (or java or javaw) -cp c:\mindterm\mindtermfull.jar mindbright.application.MindTerm
-server -local0 2010:localhost:110

Here is an example based on what we've done above. Add the following to a file in an editor:

jview (or java or javaw) -cp c:\mindterm\mindtermfull.jar mindbright.application.MindTerm
-server -local0 2010:localhost:110 -local1 2025:localhost:25 -local2
/ftp/2021:localhost:21 -local3 2043:localhost:143

now save it with a .bat extension. Double-click on it. You should be prompted for your login
name when MindTerm starts up then type your password. After you are authenticated click on
the "Tunnels" menu and click "Basic". You should see the tunnels in the box that opens up.
This is an easy way to allow remote users to start up the tunnels without many configurations
on their part. They only need to click the .bat file and type their username and password and
optionally run vlock. Their client software can be pre-configured for remote profiles that
connect to the tunnels automatically.

When you are finished using the MindTerm, be sure to close all applications that are using a
tunnel. If you forget to close the programs using the tunnels, MindTerm will display a
message when you attempt to exit from the console or quit the program.

What about VNC and NTOP? These services work the same way. Here the VNC server was running on
a RedHat 7.0 workstation. When you start the VNC server, it first listens on port 5901 and
each server after that increments up 1 port so the second instance of VNC will listen on port
5902, and the third 5903, etc.. On Linux, you can run multiple VNC servers and people can
connect to each VNC server as well. In MindTerm you can simply add a VNC tunnel with the
following settings:

Local Port: 2001
Remote Host: Your remote VNC server host name.
Remote Port: 5901 (If this is the first server instance running)
Click "Add".
Then click "OK" on the confirmation menu.

Run the vncviewer application on your local machine and type: localhost:2001, and then the
password, when prompted, for the VNC desktop and you have an encrypted VNC session.

Ntop works the same way. If you want to run ntop in web mode as a network monitor, you can
tunnel connections to your local machine and view the stats in your local browser, without
having to install a webserver or opening port 3000 on your remote server. By default, ntop in
web mode listens on port 3000 and waits for an http connection to display network stats.
Simply create a tunnel to the server running the ssh server and ntop. First run ntop in web
mode: ntop -d -w 3000 Then add the settings to the MindTerm tunnel:

Local Port: 2080
Host: Server running ntop.
Remote Port: 3000
Click "Add".
Then click "OK" on the confirmation menu.

Open up your web browser and in the location bar type: http://localhost:2080 You should now
see the network stats page for ntop (see the ntop man pages to add password protected access
to the ntop display). Similarly, if you want to install a web server so you can use web-based
applications to control your server or firewall, then just create a tunnel to port 80. You
don't have to open up a port on the public interface. Simply bind the webserver to the local
interface and create a tunnel to the remote hosts' port 80. For Apache, edit the httpd.conf
file and change the "BindAddress *" option to BindAddress Then add localhost to
the "ServerName" directive: ServerName localhost.

As you can see by now MindTerm can secure almost any TCP service. It can be used on a remote
server to run Webmin (http://www.webmin.com/webmin), which is an excellent web-application to
administer your servers. It comes with its own perl-based webserver and listens on port 10000
by default. Simply create a tunnel to it using MindTerm and it should work without any
changes to the Webmin application or your local web browser. The MindTerm download zip file
contains many useful examples, such as using it from the command line and an explanation of
all the menu options. MindTerm has more features than outlined in this tutorial but the
tunnel option is well worth spending time focusing on.

MindTerm over the Web
MindTerm can be used over the web as well. Users don't have to download the application.
Simply copy the mindtermfull.jar file to a directory into a web directory and the users can
simply use it as a built-in application or as a stand-alone java applet. For example, create
a folder named "mindterm" under your web directory. Copy the mindtermfull.jar file, that was
used above, into the web directory folder "mindterm". Then add the file index.html to the
directory with the following content (snipped from the README):
<applet archive="mindtermfull.jar" code=mindbright.application.MindTerm width=700 height=400>
<param name=server value="<yourserver name>">
<param name=port value="22">
<param name=cipher value="blowfish">
<param name=te value="xterm-color">
Browse to the location of the directory in your web browser (http://<yourserver
name>/mindterm/index.html), be sure to have Java enabled in your browser and you should be
able to login into the server now.

In order to create tunnels the most recent version of MindTerm has to be downloaded from the
MindBright website, version 1.99. That archive contains a signed applet by MindBright that
can be used in your web page to create tunnels as explained above. After you have downloaded
the latest version, add the mindterm_ns.jar file to the "mindterm" directory under your
webserver. Now add a file named "standapplet.html" to the "mindterm" directory and add the
following code to start MindTerm as a separate client to create tunnels. (NOTE: The archive
contains an applet for both netscape and Explorer)
<applet archive="mindterm_ns.jar" code=mindbright.application.MindTerm.class width=1
<param name=server value="<yourserver name>">
<param name=port value="22">
<param name=cipher value="blowfish">
<param name=sepframe value="true"><!-- wheter to run in a separate frame or not -->
<param name=autoprops value="both"><!-- enable/disable automatic save/load of settings -->
Now browse to the location of the directory in your web browser (http://<yourserver
name>/mindterm/standapplet.html). This will start MindTerm as a standalone java applet, the
same as if it was started from the command line. Tunnels can be created using the applet tags
so that users don't have to do anything but browse to the page and then login. Then they
would access their services just as explained in the above examples. They can, however,
create their own tunnels or new tunnels from the "Tunnels" menu as explained above. The
README that comes with the MindTerm zip archive has many more applet parameters that can be
added. As you create tunnels you can then click on "File" and then "Save" so it keeps the
tunnels that you have created when you log in again.

A couple of security notes here are you can't connect to another server using the initial
login applet. You can only login to the server where the applet is located. However, after
you have logged in successfully you can then log in to other servers from the command line.
Also, this MindTerm applet is signed by MindBright so you need to contact the sales
department at MindBright to obtain a crytographic signature for your organization. That is,
if it is needed.

When an ssh session starts, the public-keys are being sent over an insecure connection until
the authentication process is established.. This allows a person to intercept an ssh session
and place their own public key in the connection process. SSH is designed to warn the user if
a public-key has changed from what exists in their known_host file. The warning that is given
is quite noticeable and ssh will drop the connection if the public keys are different, but
user's may still trust the certificate because they may think that their company has changed
the server's public key. This kind of attack isn't difficult because the dsniff package
mentioned earlier contains the tools to perform it. This attack is more commonly called a
"man-in-the-middle attack" (The End of SSL and SSH).

A temporary and easy fix for this is to first teach the user's how to recognize the signs
that the host key has changed and what to do to get the proper host(s) public key. Second,
post the public key for the ssh server(s) on a website, ftp server, or distribute it some
other way so that users have access to it at all times.


SSH and MindTerm together can provide local and remote users with a high-level of security
with a simple and small drop-in application. It can also be used from nearly any platform
available. Java was chosen because of its cross-platform compatibility. If there is a JRE
available for a platform that someone uses then they can use the MindTerm application to
communicate securely over long distances. Since ssh is becoming the standard for remote
administration and logins, soon nearly all platforms will be able to run an ssh server.
MindBright is currently working on a Java SSH server.

This tutorial also shows how someone can tunnel through a firewall. This is by no means the
intention of this paper. It is hoped people will use it for a secure, quick, and free drop-in
VPN-like replacement for remote administration, traveling business people, and a hope that
other sectors can see the usefulness in this excellent program. As long as you are allowed to
make ssh connections then you can tunnel services through to a remote machine. System and
Security Administrators should establish policies against tunneling through firewalls because
that can cause internal security breaches if used improperly. Remember that the communication
is secured but the commands and files that you access and/or download are still being
executed on your local and remote machines. Also, any commands you type on most servers are
being logged as well. SSH will protect the data over the network or the Internet but what is
done on the remote machines can be logged. SSH and MindTerm will not protect against someone
gaining access to a remote user's computer and installing key logging programs or other
snooping devices.

It is very simple and quick to set up secure communications but the only way to increase the
use of secure communication is for users to encourage their company, financial institutions,
health care providers, and other businesses to offer secure services.

Special thanks to Patty Pitz for her editing and helping to organize the paper and to Doug
Eyman for his technical editing.

About the Author:

Duane Dunston is a Unix Technical Specialist at Cape Fear Community College. He received his
B.A. and M.S. degrees from Pfeiffer University and he has his GSEC certification from SANS.
He writes poetry, hangs out at The General Assembly and River Dogs in beautiful Wilmington,
NC and wakes up every morning ready to go to work.

Works Cited

Broadband Access to Increase in Workplace. 25 Jan. 2001. CyberAtlas. 12 Mar. 2001

Broadband Moving On Up. 10 Jan. 2001. CyberAtlas. 12 Mar. 2001

Connolly, P.J. "Secure the home office sensible and easily" Infoworld. 8 Mar. 2001. 22 Mar.
2001. http://www.infoworld.com/articles/tc/xml/01/03/12/010312tcsoho.xml.

Eckels, Josh. "Commercial Use" E-mail to Josh Eckels. 13 Mar. 2001

MindTerm: README. MindBright Technology. 3 March 2001

Schneier, Bruce. Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World. New York:Wiley &
Sons, 2000.

Seifried, Kurt. "The End of SSL and SSH" 18 Dec. 2000. SecurityPortal. 12 March 2001

virtual private network: [Definition]. 6 Oct. 2000. Whatis.com. 15 Mar. 2001.

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