exploit the possibilities

# pimp11.cm1

pimp11.cm1
Posted Sep 19, 1998
Authored by pimp

CDMA discussed: CDMA and the Telecommunications Industry, How CDMA Signalling works, CDMA and diversity, CDMA compared to Analog FM, CDMA Variable Rate Speech Encoder, Ten mins in the life of a CDMA Mobile Station, CDMA Power Control, and more..

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MD5 | ef34effa56d3ad28e8fc9813cc64d577

# pimp11.cm1

½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½  ____   ____   _    _   ____ | o  | |_  _| | \__/ | | o  |    PROBE INDUSTRIES MAGAZINE PHILES |   _|  _||_  |      | |   _|    ISSUE NUMBA 11 |__|   |____| |_|\/|_| |__|      RELEASED: 9/96½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½½                      øøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøø                                                                    øø                      P.I.M.P. Members:                             øø                     -------------------                            øø                                                                    øø  fringe -chicago PIMP                    stickman -chicago PIMP    øø                                                                    øø  subhuman -chicago PIMP                  qball -chicago PIMP       øø                                                                    øø  jello biafra -chicago PIMP              taz -chicago PIMP         øø                                                                    øø  mastermind -microcosm PIMP              luthor -strange days PIMP øø                                                                    øø  if yer one of the pimps, and i fergot to mention ya, lemme know   øø  on one of the boards listed below..                               øø                                                                    øøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøøø_ _ _______ _____   ___  ___   ____ _             /___/ /___/  /  /  /__)  /_            _ __/    _/   \ _/__/ _/__) _/____ _ _  _    _     _      _      _               /                           I N D U S T R I E S              /                       (Written 9/9/96 - 9/22/96)¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤                                                               ¤¤¤¤ Understanding Code Division Multiple Access Technology (CDMA) ¤¤¤¤                                                               ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤This article does not tell you how to clone cdma fones, how to haxxorinto cdma cellsites,.. nothing in this tech manual should be thoughtof as proprietary information, but moreso as information that is nextto impossible to find.. these are the basix on how cdma technology isused.  the information that people want for understanding, not just soyou can make 'leet calls.  Most people will throw this aside and saywhat the fuck is all that garbage.. but many people have told me constantly that i should release some inpho, so here it is.. the onlyinfo i could find that isn't considered proprietary.. and it's the best overall view on CDMA technology.Any and all other questions we might be able to answerCDMA related should be directed to fringe @ any of the bbses listedbelow.A small glossary was added to the bottom on this phile to help thosetrying to understand that aren't all familiar with the terms used.«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««                                                       »»««   This is divided into the following Chapters:        »»««                                                       »»««   1. CDMA and the Telecommunications Industry.        »»««   2. How CDMA Signalling works.                       »»««   3. CDMA and diversity.                              »»««   4. CDMA compared to Analog FM.                      »»««   5. CDMA Variable Rate Speech Encoder.               »»««   6. Ten mins in the life of a CDMA Mobile Station.   »»««   7. CDMA Power Control.                              »»««   8. Glossary of terms used.                          »»««                                                       »»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»++++++   ++ 1 +   CDMA and the Telecommunications Industry.+   ++++++     Presently, the tcom industry is facing problems.. they have an ever increasing number of users sharing the same limited freq bands.To expand the user base, the industry must find methods to increasecapacity without degrading the quality of service.       The current analog cellular system uses a complex system of channelization with 30 kHz channels, commonly called FDMA (FrequencyDivision Multiple Access).  To maximize capactiy, FDMA cellular usesdirective antennas (cell sectoring in the hexagonal shape) and complexfrequency reuse planning.     To further increase system capacity, a digital access method is being implemented called TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access).  Thissystem uses the same frequency channelization and reuse as FDMA analogand adds a time sharing element.  Each channel is shared in time bythree users to effectively triple system capacity.    CDMA stands for Code Division Multiple Access and uses correlativecodes to distinguish one user from another.  Frequency divisions are still used, but in a much larger bandwidth (1.25 MHz).  In CDMA, a single user's channel consists of a specific frequency combined with aunique code.  CDMA also uses sectored cells to increase capacity.  Oneof the major difs in access is that any CDMA freq can be used in allsectors of all cells.      The correlative codes allow each user to operate in the presenceof substantial interference.  This can be compared to a large bunch ofpeople talkin.. differences between voices and the like can be sortedby your brain, but eventually they all become less distinctive as morevoices are added.. the talk zone is growing smaller.  CDMA issimiliar, but the recognition is based on the kode.  The interferenceis the sum of all other users on the same CDMA freq, both from withinand without the home cell and from delayed versions of these signals. It also includes thermal noise and atmospheric disturbances.  Delayedsignals caused by multipath are separately received and combined inCDMA.  This will be discussed moreso later on.     One of the major capacity gains with CDMA is due to it's freqreuse patterns.  The normal reuse pattern for analog and TDMA systemsemploys only 1/7 of the available freqs in any given cell and itessentially can be called frequency non-reuse.. but with CDMA, thesame freqs are used in all cells.  When using sectored cells, the samefreqs can be used in all sectors of all cells.  This is only possiblebecause CDMA technology is designed to decode the proper signal in thepresence of high interference. ++++++   ++ 2 +   How CDMA signalling works.+   ++++++      CDMA starts with a narrowband signal with a full data rate of 9600 bps.  This is spread with the use of specialized codes to a bandwidth of 1.23 MHz.  When transmitted, a CDMA signal experiences high levels of interference, dominated by the coded signals of other CDMA users.  This takes two forms, interference from other users in the same cell and interference from adjacent cells.  The total interference also includes background noise and other spurious signals.  When the signal is received, the correlator recovers the desired signal and rejects the interference.  This is possible becausethe interference sources are uncorrelated to the desired signal.++++++   ++ 3 +   CDMA and Diversity.+   ++++++     An important aspect of CDMA is diversity.  CDMA uses three types     of diversity:     - spartial diversity     - frequency diversity     - time diversitySpatial Diversity: takes two forms:     - two antennas: the base station uses two receive antennas for          greater immunity to fading.  this is a classic version of         spatial diversity.     - multiple base stations simultaneously talk to the mobile during       soft handoff.     During soft handoff, contact is made with two base stations simultaneously.  The signals from the base to mobile are treated as multipath signals and are coherently combined at the mobile unit.  at the base stations, the signals are transmitted via the network to the Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO), where a quality decision is made on a frame-by-frame basis, every 20 ms.------------------------------------------------------------------            Vocoder / Selector                       \\\\\                        \[ MTSO ]  <-- land link -->                         /\    /\                         /      \                        /        \                       /          \          Base Station one          Base Station two                  \                     /                   \                   /                    \                 /                    \/               \/             [ Subscriber / Mobile Phone user ]Figure One - Spatial Diversity during soft handoff.------------------------------------------------------------------Frequency Diversity:     Frequency diversity is inherent in spread spectrum systems.  A fade of the signal is less likely than with narrow band systems.  Fading is caused by multipath and is a function of the time delays in the alternate paths.  In the freq doman, a fade appears as a notch filter that moves across a band.  As the user moves, the freq of the notch changes.  The width of the notch is on the order of one over thedifference in arrival time of two signals.  For a 1 microsecond delay,the notch will be approximately 1 MHz wide.  The TIA CDMA system uses a 1.25 MHz bandwidth, so only those multipaths of time less than 1 microsecond actually cause the signal to experience a deep fade.  In many environments, the multipath signals will arrive at the receiver after a much longer delay.  This means that only a narrow portion of the signal is lost.  Say there is a fade of 200 to 300 kHz.. this willresult in a power loss with a CDMA signal, but could result in a complete loss of an analog or TDMA signal.Time Diversity:     Time diversity is a technique common to most digital transmissionsystems.  Signals are spread in time by use of interleaving.  Forward error correction is applied, along with maximal likelihood detection. The particular scheme used for CDMA is convolutional encoding in the transmitter with Viterbi decoding using soft decision points in the receiver.  rake receiver: CDMA takes advantage of the multipath by using multiple receivers and assigning them to the strongest signals. The mobile receiver uses three receiving elements, and the basestation users four.  This multiple correlator system is called a rake receiver.  In addition to the separate correlators, searchers are alsoused to look for alternate multipaths and for neighboring base stationsignals.++++++   ++ 4 +   CDMA compared to analog FM.+   ++++++For most people familiar with FM communications systems, aparadigm shift is needed to properly discuss CDMA.Here are some differences between CDMA and analog FM:- Multiple users are on one frequency simultaneously- A channel is defined by the correlative code in addition to the freq- The capacity limit is soft.  Capacity can be increased with some   degradation of the error rate or voice quality.++++++   ++ 5 +   CDMA Variable Rate Speech Encoder.+   ++++++     CDMA takes advantage of quiet times during speech to raise capacity.  A variable rate vocoder is used; the channel is at 9600 bpswhen the user is talking.  When the user pauses, or is listening, the data rate drops to only 1200 bps.  2400 and 4800 bps are also used, though not as often as the other two.  The data rate is based on speech activity and a decision as to the appropriate rate is made every 20 ms.  Normal telephone speech has approximately a 40% activityfactor.     The mobile station lowers its data rate by turning off its transmitter when the vocoder is operating at less than 9600 bps.  At1200 bps, the duty cycle is only { {1} \\over {8} } that of the full data rate.  The choice of time for this duty cycling is stochastic, sothe power is lowered at all times when averaged over many users.  Lowering the transmit power at the mobile reduces the level of interference for all other users.     The base station uses a slightly different scheme.  It repeats the same bit patterns as many times as needed to get back to the full rate of 9600 bps.  The transmit power for that channel is adjusted to reflect this repetition which allows the interference to be minimized.Repeating the bits at lower power is more effective on the forward link than it could be on the reverse link due to use of a coherent phase reference called the pilot signal.  (more on power later)Walsh codes:     An important feature of the forward link is the use of Walsh codes.  These have the characteristic of being orthogonal to each other and to the logikal NOT of each other.  Two codes are defined to be orthogonal if they have an exact zero cross product when summed over the full period of codes.  The TIA CDMA system uses a 64 by 64 Walsh matrix (each Walsh code is 64 bits long).CDMA Forward Link Physical Layer:     Voice data at 9600 bps (full rate) is first passed through a convolutional encoder, which doubles the data rate.  It is then interleaved, a process that has no effect on the rate, but does introduce time delays in the final reconstruction of the signal.  A long code is XOR'ed with the data, which is a voice privacy function and not needed for channelization.  CDMA then applies a 64 bit Walsh code which is uniquely assigned to a base to mobile link to form one channel.  This sets a physical limit of 64 channels on the forward link.  If the coded voice data is a zero, the Walsh sequence is output; if the data is a one, the logikal not of the Walsh code is sent.  The Walsh coding yields a data rate increase of 64 times.  The data is then split into I and Q channels, and spread with short codes.The final signals are passed through a low pass filter, and eventuallysent to an I/Q modulator.Long Code Generation:     The Long Code is generated using a 42-bit linear feedback shift register.  This is the master clock and is synchronized in all CDMA radios.  A specific mask is applied to generate a unique long code.Forward Link Channel Format:     The Base Station transmitter signal is the composite of many channels ( with a minimum of four ).  These four channels are the Pilot channel, the Sync channel, the Paging channel, and the Traffic channel. - Pilot Channel   The Pilot channel is unmodulated; it consists of only the final   spreading sequence (short sequences).  The Pilot Channel is used by   all mobiles linked to a cell as a coherent phase reference.  The    other three channels, the Sync channel, the Paging channel, and the   Traffic Channel, use the same data flow, but different data are    sent on these channels. - Sync Channel   The Sync channel transmits time of day information.  This allows   the mobile and the base to align clocks which form the basis of the   codes that are needed by both to make a link.      - Paging Channel   The Paging channel is the digital control channel for the forward    link.  Its complement is the access channel which is the reverse   link control channel.  One base station can have multiple paging   channels and access channels if needed. - Traffic Channel   The Traffic channel is equivalent to the analog voice channel.    This is where the actual conversations take place.CDMA Reverse Link Physical Layer:     The CDMA reverse link uses a different coding scheme to transmitdata.  Unlike the forward link, the reverse link cannot support apilot channel for synchronous demodulation (since each mobile stationwould need its own pilot channel).  Due to this limitation, thereverse link has less capacity than the forward link.  To aid reverselink performance, the 9600 bps voice data uses a one-third rateconvolutional coded for more powerful error correction.  Then six databits at a time are taken to point at one of the 64 available Walshcodes.  The data, which is at 307.2 kbps, is then XOR'ed with the longcode to reach the full 1.2288 Mbps data rate.  This unique long codeis the channelization for the reverse link.     The modulation is Filtered QPSK in the base station, and FilteredOffset QPSK in the mobile station. - CDMA Modulation Formats   In normal operation, many channels are summed together andtransmitted on top of each other by the base station.  O-QPSK is usedin the mobile stations because it avoids the origin and makes thedesign of the output amplifier easier.  For the base station, sincemany channels are summed together, using O-QPSK would not always avoidthe origin.  This is due to random nature of adding many signalstogether. - CDMA Multiplex Sublayer   Signalling is well structured in CDMA.  The full data rate of 9600bps can be shared between data for the user and signaling data.  Thechannel is effectively a modem that can be used for a variety ofservices.  Current standards exist for service option 1, the vocoder. Service options 2 and 3 are under discussion at the standardscommittee.  These proposed options are for a test mode of dataloopback, and data services.------------------------------------------------------------------_____________________     ________________|  Service Options  |     |  Signalling  ||___________________|_____|______________||        Multiplex        Sublayer       ||________________________________________||        Channel Data  -  9600 bps       ||________________________________________|Figure Two - CDMA Multiplex Sublayer----------------------------------------------------------------------++++++   ++ 6 +   Ten mins in the life of a CDMA Mobile Station.+   ++++++     It all starts with the turn-on of the radio and system access. It assumes the car is being driven and that the radio performs an idlestate handoff.  It covers call initiation, soft handoff and calltermination. - Turn On   System Access:  When the mobile first turns on, it must find thebest base station.  This is similiar to analog where the phone scansall the control channels and selects the best one.  In CDMA, themobile unit scans for available Pilot Signals, which are all ondifferent time offsets.  This process is made easier because of thefixed offsets.  The timing of any base station is always an exactmultiple of 64 systen clock cycles (called chips) offset from anyother base station.  The mobile selects the strongest pilot tone andestablishes a frequency and time reference off the signal.  The mobilethen demodulates the sync channel which is always on Walsh 32.  Thischannel provides master clock information by sending the state of the42 bit long code shift register 320 milliseconds in the future.  The sync channel also contains many other system parameters.  The mobilethen starts listening to the paging channel, and waits for a Page thatis directed to its phone number.  The mobile will often register withthe base station so that the base station can do location-based pagingrather than system wide paging. - CDMA Idle State Handoff   The mobile has searchers scanning for alternative pilot tones atall times.  If a pilot tone is found from another base station that isstrong enough for a link, the mobile will request a soft handoff.  Inthis case, no call is in process, so it is an idle state handoff. This is an active process that updates the location of the mobile tothe system. - CDMA Call Initiation   The user then decides to make a call.  The number is keyed in andthe send key is hit.  This initiates an Access Probe.  The mobile usesthe access channel and attempts to make contact with the serving basestation.  As no link is yet established, closed-loop power control isnot active.  The mobile uses open-loop control to guess an initiallevel.  Multiple tries are allowed with random times between the triesto avoid collisions that can occur on the access channel.  After eachattempt the mobile listens to the paging channel for a  response fromthe base station.  The base station responds with an assignment to atraffic channel.  This is a Walsh code for the forward link.  Thetraffic channel uses different long codes than the paging channel. The base station initiates the land link, and a conversation can takeplace.  When a call is initially processed, your ESN / MIN pair is transferred through the EMX (Electronic Mobile eXchange), thus alongwith that transfer, your ani is passed on to whatever line you call;most cell sites do not support Caller ID though. - CDMA Soft Handoff   During the call, the mobile finds yet another base station withgood power.  The mobile makes a request from its serving cell toinitiate soft handoff with the additional cell.  The base stationpasses this request to the MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office)which contacts the second base station and gets a Walsh assignment.  This is sent to the mobile by the first base station.  The land linkis connected to both base stations.  The mobile combines the signalsfrom both base stations by using the two Pilot signals as coherentphase references.  At the MTSO, the signals are examined from eachbase station and the better one is chosen for each 20 millisecondsblock.  As the signal from the first base station degrades, the mobilewill ask that the soft handoff be terminated.  At this point themobile is being power controlled by the second base station (since thefirst cell probably has a very poor link).  The request is passed fromthe second cell through the MTSO, and the first cell stopstransmission and reception of the signal.  The mobile is now only onthe second cell. - CDMA End of Call   Finally, the call ends.  This can be initiated either from themobile or land side.  In either case, transmissions are stopped andthe land line connection is broken.  Word has it, with the normalanalog cell sites used now,.. the EMX (Electronic Mobile eXchange)will drop your call into default so that you won't be billed if forany reason power cuts off to a phone call without you hitting the endkey.. so if you took off the battery during transmission, youbasikally shouldn't get billed, because certain termination tones aren't sent to properly end the call.. i haven't tested this theory myself, but let's just say i got this from an expert in the field..and although i promised i wouldn't discuss how to make free fone calls,.. i had to throw that in there.++++++   ++ 7 +   CDMA Power Control.+   ++++++    One of the fundamental enabling technologies of CDMA is powercontrol.  The power of all mobile units is controlled so that toarrive at the base station with equal power levels.  In this way, theinterference from one unit to another is held to a minimum.Reverse Link Power Control:   Two forms of power control are used for the reverse link:   - open loop power control   - closed loop power control - Open loop power control      Open loop power control is based on the similarity of the loss inthe forward path to the loss in the reverse path (forward refers tothe base-to-mobile link,  while reverse refers to the mobile-to-baselink).   Open loop control sets the sum of transmit power and receive powerto a constant, nominally -73, if both powers are in dMb.  A reductionin signal level at the receive antenna will result in an increase insignal power from the transmitter.  For example, assume that thereceived power of the composite signal from the base station is -85dBm.  The open loop transmit power setting would be +12 dBm. - Closed loop power control   Closed loop power control is used to allow the power from themobile unit to deviate from the nominal as set by open loop control. This is done with a form of delta modulator.  The base stationmonitors the power received from each mobile station and commands themobile to either raise power or lower power by a fixed step of 1 dB. This process is repeated 800 times per second, or every 1.25milliseconds.   Because the power of the mobile is controlled to be no more than isneeded to maintain the link at the base station, much less power istypikally transmitted from the mobiles than is the case with analog. The analog radio needs to transmit enough power to maintain a linkeven in the presence of a fade.  Most of the time it is transmittingwith excess power.  The CDMA radio is controlled in real time and iskept at low power.  The has the benefit of longer battery life andsmaller, lower cost amplifier design.  If recent health concerns overcellular phone radiations are founded, CDMA will be preferred.++++++   ++ 8 +   Cellular term glossary for this phile.+   ++++++Bandwidth - can be thought of as the MAX Peak-to-Peak of a waveform.            ^the range of hertz a signal can hold.CDMA      - Code Division Multiple AccessESN       - Electronic Serial NumberFDMA      - Frequency Multiple Division Accessfreq      - I used this a lot, short for frequency (duh!)Handoff   - the process of a call changing from one hex (cellsite) to            another hex (cellsite).MIN       - Mobile Identification NumberTDMA      - Time Division Multiple AccessVocoder   - Voice Coder, used to encrypt the call.  All conversation            and transmission are encrypted with CDMA technology.the rest that you may have questions on.. mail me or ask someone..i just typed this whole file.. and although i type fast.. this fuckinkilled me.. i may type a phile later on cell switches.. which may bemore interesting.. [ END CDMA TECH 1 ]¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,  _  _______ ______   ___   ___   ____ _             /___/  /___/  /  /  /__)  /_             _ __/     _/   \ _/__/ _/__) _/____ _ _ _                 /                           I N D U S T R I E S¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,/¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,¬,  M A G A Z I N E                                             P H I L E S    1 9 9 6§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§the following boards listed hold true to the scene and if you are deepinto h/p and the likes, i suggest you give them a call.  if your boardis on here, and you don't want it to be, let me know.  if your board isn't on here, but you think it should be.. let me know. i mightproduce more CDMA philes,.. it all depends-fringegreets (just like in the ol commodore daze) go out to the followingnpa's, since posting hundreds of handles is outta the question:207 (keep maine alive luthor!), 303 (i like the switch Haven),312 (remember when we were ALL 312?!), 410 (where'd ad2 go?!), 416 (hidin' away), 514 (you guys have been diehards for years),516 (peoples definately in the know), 619 (cellular is fun, no? :) ),630 (my gnu npa,.. joy), 704 (yer scene's crashed hard w/o linoleum), 708 (what used to be my npa), 847 (iz all good),904 (keep goin microcosm), +31 +44 +49 +62 (i'll be back overseassoon, hopefully.. there is no stronger scene.. than overseas..) §§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§Apocalypse 2000 - H/P/Punk/Ska/Rave/home of the PIMPS!+1-847-676-9855 - *NO* ratio for LD callers. 1 gig online.Poison Pen - H/P, *NO* ratio.+1-847-251-3868Moo 'n' Oink - H/P+1-847-256-5928Microcosm - H/P+1-904-484-5548Underworld 96+1-514-683-1894Aneurysm - H/P - NUP: Discipline+1-514-458-9851Last Territory - H/P+1-514-565-9754Linoleum - H/P+1-704-gone, but will be remembered well..Hacker's Haven - H/P+1-303-343-4053Digital Disturbance - H/P+1-516-681-7437 Hacker's Hideaway - H/P+1-416-534-0417TOTSE - H/P and crazy other amounts of info+1-510-935-5845The Switchboard (priorly known as the coffee shop) - H/P+011-31-703-584-868Arrested Development - H/P+011-31-773-547-477***********************************************************                                                        **           Probe Industries Magazine Philes  11         **                                                        **    "Because I study P-I-M-P-ology, but logikally.."    **                                                        **              po pimp - do or die                      **                                                        ***********************************************************`

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