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Key Reinstallation: Forcing Nonce Reuse In WPA2
Posted Oct 16, 2017
Authored by Frank Piessens, Mathy Vanhoef | Site

Whitepaper called Reinstallation Attacks: Forcing Nonce Reuse in WPA2. This research paper will be presented on at the Computer and Communications Security (CCS) conference on November 1, 2017. This paper details a flaw in the WPA2 protocol itself and most devices that makes use of WPA2 are affected.

tags | paper, crypto, protocol
advisories | CVE-2017-13077, CVE-2017-13078, CVE-2017-13079, CVE-2017-13080, CVE-2017-13081, CVE-2017-13082, CVE-2017-13084, CVE-2017-13086, CVE-2017-13087, CVE-2017-13088
MD5 | 9ae08a7eee791f7977ada5c05ba50f29
Side Channel Attack Countermeasures In Cryptographic Systems
Posted May 10, 2017
Authored by James Fell

Side channel attacks against cryptographic systems involve identifying ways in which their physical implementations leak useful information. A cryptographic algorithm may be secure on paper but when implemented on physical hardware some of the secret data, such as key bits, may potentially be recovered by an attacker by measuring various physical properties whilst encryption or decryption is being performed. This essay reviews the most successful countermeasures that can be used to make different classes of side channel attacks as difficult as possible. An understanding of basic principles of cryptography is assumed.

tags | paper
MD5 | cac393efbdd310e9a2ca73805bcb9ebd
Imperfect Forward Secrecy: How Diffie-Hellman Fails In Practice
Posted Oct 15, 2015
Authored by Eric Wustrow, J. Alex Halderman, Karthikeyan Bhargavan, Matthew Green, Pierrick Gaudry, David Adrian, Benjamin VanderSloot, Nadia Heninger, Drew Springall, Luke Valenta, Paul Zimmermann, Emmanuel Thome, Zakir Durumeric, Santiago Zanella-Beguelin

This paper investigates the security of Diffie-Hellman key exchange as used in popular Internet protocols and find it to be less secure than widely believed. First, they present Logjam, a novel flaw in TLS that lets a man-in-the-middle downgrade connections to "export-grade" Diffie-Hellman. To carry out this attack, the researchers implement the number field sieve discrete log algorithm. After a week-long precomputation for a specified 512-bit group, they can compute arbitrary discrete logs in that group in about a minute. They found that 82% of vulnerable servers use a single 512-bit group, allowing them to compromise connections to 7% of Alexa Top Million HTTPS sites. They go on to consider Diffie-Hellman with 768- and 1024-bit groups. They estimate that even in the 1024-bit case, the computations are plausible given nation-state resources. A small number of fixed or standardized groups are used by millions of servers; performing precomputation for a single 1024-bit group would allow passive eavesdropping on 18% of popular HTTPS sites, and a second group would allow decryption of traffic to 66% of IPsec VPNs and 26% of SSH servers. A close reading of published NSA leaks shows that the agency's attacks on VPNs are consistent with having achieved such a break. They conclude that moving to stronger key exchange methods should be a priority for the Internet community.

tags | paper, web, arbitrary, protocol
MD5 | 6d13b1ef77ba8f3acea1e122c94a07b8
Exploitation Of Hash Functions
Posted Aug 26, 2014
Authored by Deepanshu Khanna

This is a whitepaper that touches on various cryptography and discusses hash functions at a slightly greater length.

tags | paper
MD5 | 67bf0fb9a7af19573e2642a0ce66cc37
IPSec Cryptographic Overhead
Posted Jul 12, 2014
Authored by Chintan Gurjar

Whitepaper called the Cryptographic Overhead of IPSec Protocol Suite During the Packet Exchange Process.

tags | paper, protocol
MD5 | 539083da2fa25d91380ee152a523ea18
Windtalking Computers: Frequency Normalization, Binary Coding Systems, and Encryption
Posted Mar 3, 2013
Authored by Givon Zirkind | Site

The goal of this paper is to discuss the application of known techniques, knowledge and technology in a novel way, to encrypt computer and non-computer data. There are two distinct and separate methods presented in this paper.

tags | paper, encryption, crypto
MD5 | 6f6af8933f56904417513cdb83cbb907
Lucky Thirteen: Breaking The TLS And DTLS Record Protocols
Posted Feb 5, 2013
Authored by Kenneth G. Paterson, Nadhem J. AlFardan

The Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol aims to provide confidentiality and integrity of data in transit across untrusted networks. TLS has become the de facto secure protocol of choice for Internet and mobile applications. DTLS is a variant of TLS that is growing in importance. In this paper, the authors present distinguishing and plaintext recovery attacks against TLS and DTLS. The attacks are based on a delicate timing analysis of decryption processing in the two protocols. The authors include experimental results demonstrating the feasibility of the attacks in realistic network environments for several different implementations of TLS and DTLS, including the leading OpenSSL implementations. The authors provide countermeasures for the attacks. Finally, they discuss the wider implications of their attacks for the cryptographic design used by TLS and DTLS.

tags | paper, protocol
MD5 | 437c89de7f4b642a834928fa3cc8f1e9
Efficient Padding Oracle Attacks On Cryptographic Hardware
Posted Jun 27, 2012
Authored by Riccardo Focardi, Graham Steel, Joe-Kai Tsay, Lorenzo Simionato, Yusuke Kawamoto, Romain Bardou

This paper demonstrates how to exploit the encrypted key import functions of a variety of different cryptographic devices to reveal the imported key. The attacks are padding oracle attacks, where error messages resulting from incorrectly padded plaintexts are used as a side channel. This is the paper that made headlines regarding RSA tokens being cracked in 13 minutes.

tags | paper
MD5 | b4cecd687dccde3df469accca5075a65
Cryptanalysis Of INCrypt32 In HID's iCLASS Systems
Posted Feb 7, 2012
Authored by Daewan Han, Dong Hoon Lee, ChangKyun Kim, Chang-Ho Jung, Eun-Gu Jung

The cryptographic algorithm called INCrypt32 is a MAC algorithm to authenticate participants, RFID cards and readers, in HID Global's iCLASS systems. HID's iCLASS cards are widely used contactless smart cards for physical access control. Although INCrypt32 is a heart of the security of HID's iCLASS systems, its security has not been evaluated yet since the specification has not been open to public. In this paper, they reveal the specification of INCrypt32 by reverse engineering an iCLASS card and investigate the security of INCrypt32. As a result, we show that the secret key of size 64 bits can be recovered using only 218 MAC queries if the attacker can request MAC for chosen messages of arbitrary length. If the length of messages is limited to pre-determined values by the authentication protocol, the required number of MAC queries grows to 242 to recover the secret key.

tags | paper, arbitrary, crypto, protocol
MD5 | ee33f7e2da98c62d3b33c6294941bbe8
Baseline Requirements For Publicly-Trusted Certificates 1.0
Posted Dec 17, 2011

This document is version 1.0, as adopted by the CA/Browser Forum on 22 Nov. 2011 with an Effective Date of 1 July 2012. These Baseline Requirements describe an integrated set of technologies, protocols, identity-proofing, lifecycle management, and auditing requirements that are necessary (but not sufficient) for the issuance and management of Publicly-Trusted Certificates; Certificates that are trusted by virtue of the fact that their corresponding Root Certificate is distributed in widely-available application software. The Requirements are not mandatory for Certification Authorities unless and until they become adopted and enforced by relying–party Application Software Suppliers.

tags | paper, root, protocol
MD5 | 63d03aa7d401de867cf392a08b47eb93
On Equivalence Between Zeta And R-Sequence
Posted Dec 13, 2011
Authored by Michal Bucko

This paper covers a conjecture of equivalence between a statement regarding Ξ matrix and Zeta.

tags | paper
MD5 | ffeb0704f3a4f742f8cdc662a27b89a1
On The R-Sequence And Prime Key Set Problem
Posted Dec 13, 2011
Authored by Michal Bucko

This document covers the introduction of the R-sequence, i.e. the sequence of numbers closely related to the distribution of the prime numbers. The paper contains its connection to ζ and Mobius function.

tags | paper
MD5 | 7eb0b52dfcf76b9629a1e7004f39e0ca
TLS/SSL Hardening And Compatibility Report
Posted Sep 30, 2011
Authored by Thierry Zoller | Site

This report gives general recommendations as to how to configure SSL/TLS in order to provide state of the art authentication and encryption. The options offered by SSL engines grew from the early days since Netscape developed SSL2.0. The introduction of TLS made matters more challenging as servers and clients offer different sets of available options depending on which SSL engine (OpenSSL, NSS, SCHANNEL, etc.) they use. Finding the middle ground has proven difficult especially as the supported protocols and cipher suites are mostly not documented. To make matters more complicated Browsers may not use all functionality offered by the SSL stack, this report will only list functionality used by current Browsers. This report provides an overview of the currently available TLS options across Servers and Clients and allows you to offer support for a wide variety of Browsers an offer "good enough" security.

tags | paper, protocol
MD5 | ea3ba9ca23ddccb36b094184551e503d
Biclique Cryptanalysis Of The Full AES
Posted Aug 19, 2011
Authored by Dmitry Khovratovich, Andrey Bogdanov, Christian Rechberger

Whitepaper called Biclique Cryptanalysis of the Full AES. Since Rijndael was chosen as the Advanced Encryption Standard, improving upon 7-round attacks on the 128-bit key variant or upon 8-round attacks on the 192/256-bit key variants has been one of the most difficult challenges in the cryptanalysis of block ciphers for more than a decade. This paper discusses shortcut attacks on AES.

tags | paper
MD5 | 709a1f2c8b9ff655ca735589dc58c746
Remote Timing Attacks Are Still Practical
Posted May 25, 2011
Authored by Nicola Tuveri, Billy Bob Brumley

This whitepaper describes a timing attack vulnerability in OpenSSL's ladder implementation for curves over binary fields. They use this vulnerability to steal the private key of a TLS server where the server authenticates with ECDSA signatures. Using the timing of the exchanged messages, the messages themselves, and the signatures, they mount a lattice attack that recovers the private key. Finally, they describe and implement an effective countermeasure.

tags | exploit, paper, crypto, vulnerability
MD5 | 4558b899d97a106def3ba064ab5eadfe
Elliptic Curve Cryptography Anomalous Curves
Posted Sep 11, 2010
Authored by Alonso De Jesus Garcia Herrera, Carlos Mario Penagos Hollmann

Whitepaper called Elliptic Curve Cryptography Anomalous Curves. Written in Spanish.

tags | paper
MD5 | 2b639c3df334eaf5d930ef387fb86c6c
Whitepaper Comparing MD5 To Windows LM Hashes
Posted Mar 22, 2010
Authored by Jeremy Langford

This whitepaper is a comparison of the security provider by Window's Local Area Network Manager and Message Digest Five hashes in the application of personal and business computers.

tags | paper, local
MD5 | 8ce3495b25e25aefeec5867bb6f68765
Cryptography - The Magic Of The Asymmetric
Posted Jan 26, 2010
Authored by Keksa

Whitepaper called Cryptography - The Magic Of The Asymmetric. Written in German.

tags | paper
MD5 | 7a1072950ad30ae37a0f62a304949013
SSL Sniffing
Posted Jan 11, 2010
Authored by Aokan | Site

Whitepaper called SSL Sniffing. It discusses the basic use of SSL and what types of attack tools and methodologies exist.

tags | paper
MD5 | ccc23804455e187b044d226ff6feca5a
Posted Nov 15, 2007
Authored by Alex Bassas Serramia

Whitepaper titled Breaking RSA: Totient indirect factorization.

tags | paper
MD5 | 05bb3993fce0e3665a7a454a31c6c7a1
Posted Jul 14, 2005
Authored by Ashish Anand | Site

Whitepaper entitled Application Level Cryptography: Combination Stream And Block Ciphering Using Double Encryption Algorithms.

tags | paper
MD5 | afc7aedcfa978bac8776fd03f43ea6a5
Posted Jul 12, 2005
Authored by pagvac (Adrian Pastor), Petko Petkov, Rabia Barakat

Practical Applications of Public-key Cryptography: Securing Email Communications with PGP. An 11 page tutorial that discusses practical uses of PGP desktop, the commercial version of PGP.

tags | paper
MD5 | 81761434a44e7b3e64b6930079905871
Posted Feb 26, 2005
Authored by PAgVac

Brief paper discussing the basics of cryptography and the difference between symmetric and asymmetric cryptography.

tags | paper
MD5 | 1fb7d951e26e627eb3917c88148cf3ea
Posted Jan 26, 2005
Authored by D.J. Capelis

White paper discussing the new ASH family of hashing algorithms. They are based off of modifications to the existing SHA-2 family and were designed with two main goals in mind: Providing increased collision resistance and increasing mitigation of security risks post-collision.

tags | paper
MD5 | cfc40a525aab63b7075b6e7b4760d13a
Posted Jan 12, 2005
Authored by Hongjun Wu

White paper discussing the misuse of RC4 in Microsoft Word and Excel, where the initialization vector of RC4 remains the same when an encrypted document gets modified and saved,

tags | paper
MD5 | 4b51c7d51729aa139604ffad57258c26
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