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Flush + Reload: A High Resolution, Low Noise, L3 Cache Side-Channel Attack
Posted Jul 26, 2013
Authored by Yuval Yarom, Katrina Falkner

Flush+Reload is a cache side-channel attack that monitors access to data in shared pages. In this paper the authors demonstrate how to use the attack to extract private encryption keys from GnuPG. The high resolution and low noise of the Flush+Reload attack enables a spy program to recover over 98% of the bits of the private key in a single decryption or signing round. Unlike previous attacks, the attack targets the last level L3 cache. Consequently, the spy program and the victim do not need to share the execution core of the CPU. The attack is not limited to a traditional OS and can be used in a virtualised environment, where it can attack programs executing in a different VM.

tags | paper
MD5 | ad27212856fc1757a511a4724c7cc8a4

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Kernel Live Patch Security Notice LSN-0065-1
Posted Apr 15, 2020
Authored by Benjamin M. Romer

Andrew Honig reported a flaw in the way KVM (Kernel-based Virtual Machine) emulated the IOAPIC. A privileged guest user could exploit this flaw to read host memory or cause a denial of service (crash the host). It was discovered that the KVM implementation in the Linux kernel, when paravirtual TLB flushes are enabled in guests, the hypervisor in some situations could miss deferred TLB flushes or otherwise mishandle them. An attacker in a guest VM could use this to expose sensitive information (read memory from another guest VM). Al Viro discovered that the vfs layer in the Linux kernel contained a use- after-free vulnerability. A local attacker could use this to cause a denial of service (system crash) or possibly expose sensitive information (kernel memory).

tags | advisory, denial of service, kernel, local
systems | linux
advisories | CVE-2013-1798, CVE-2019-3016, CVE-2020-8428
MD5 | 447f0d1c5c178b42193ae361cc92d87a
Ubuntu Security Notice USN-4301-1
Posted Mar 17, 2020
Authored by Ubuntu | Site security.ubuntu.com

Ubuntu Security Notice 4301-1 - It was discovered that the KVM implementation in the Linux kernel, when paravirtual TLB flushes are enabled in guests, the hypervisor in some situations could miss deferred TLB flushes or otherwise mishandle them. An attacker in a guest VM could use this to expose sensitive information. Paulo Bonzini discovered that the KVM hypervisor implementation in the Linux kernel could improperly let a nested guest access the resources of a parent guest in certain situations. An attacker could use this to expose sensitive information. Various other issues were also addressed.

tags | advisory, kernel
systems | linux, ubuntu
advisories | CVE-2019-19053, CVE-2019-19056, CVE-2019-19059, CVE-2019-19066, CVE-2019-19068, CVE-2019-3016, CVE-2020-2732
MD5 | 6b921a608ab319902047d0ad4c3538bd
Ubuntu Security Notice USN-4300-1
Posted Mar 17, 2020
Authored by Ubuntu | Site security.ubuntu.com

Ubuntu Security Notice 4300-1 - It was discovered that the KVM implementation in the Linux kernel, when paravirtual TLB flushes are enabled in guests, the hypervisor in some situations could miss deferred TLB flushes or otherwise mishandle them. An attacker in a guest VM could use this to expose sensitive information. Paulo Bonzini discovered that the KVM hypervisor implementation in the Linux kernel could improperly let a nested guest access the resources of a parent guest in certain situations. An attacker could use this to expose sensitive information. Various other issues were also addressed.

tags | advisory, kernel
systems | linux, ubuntu
advisories | CVE-2019-18809, CVE-2019-19043, CVE-2019-19053, CVE-2019-19056, CVE-2019-19058, CVE-2019-19059, CVE-2019-19064, CVE-2019-19066, CVE-2019-19068, CVE-2019-3016, CVE-2020-2732
MD5 | caa07f46355fbda12c3113a6958695d0
Ubuntu Security Notice USN-3910-1
Posted Mar 16, 2019
Authored by Ubuntu | Site security.ubuntu.com

Ubuntu Security Notice 3910-1 - It was discovered that the f2fs filesystem implementation in the Linux kernel did not handle the noflush_merge mount option correctly. An attacker could use this to cause a denial of service. It was discovered that the procfs filesystem did not properly handle processes mapping some memory elements onto files. A local attacker could use this to block utilities that examine the procfs filesystem to report operating system state, such as ps. Various other issues were also addressed.

tags | advisory, denial of service, kernel, local
systems | linux, ubuntu
advisories | CVE-2017-18241, CVE-2018-1120, CVE-2018-19985, CVE-2018-7740, CVE-2019-6133
MD5 | 4c9e16088685e925a3c78db741714aee
Ubuntu Security Notice USN-3910-2
Posted Mar 16, 2019
Authored by Ubuntu | Site security.ubuntu.com

Ubuntu Security Notice 3910-2 - USN-3910-1 fixed vulnerabilities in the Linux kernel for Ubuntu 16.04 LTS. This update provides the corresponding updates for the Linux Hardware Enablement kernel from Ubuntu 16.04 LTS for Ubuntu 14.04 LTS. It was discovered that the f2fs filesystem implementation in the Linux kernel did not handle the noflush_merge mount option correctly. An attacker could use this to cause a denial of service. Various other issues were also addressed.

tags | advisory, denial of service, kernel, vulnerability
systems | linux, ubuntu
advisories | CVE-2017-18241, CVE-2018-1120, CVE-2018-19985, CVE-2018-7740, CVE-2019-6133
MD5 | 90737e4356a35bc59a396e5d7a1d20a2
Ubuntu Security Notice USN-3835-1
Posted Dec 4, 2018
Authored by Ubuntu | Site security.ubuntu.com

Ubuntu Security Notice 3835-1 - Jann Horn discovered that the procfs file system implementation in the Linux kernel did not properly restrict the ability to inspect the kernel stack of an arbitrary task. A local attacker could use this to expose sensitive information. Jann Horn discovered that the mremap system call in the Linux kernel did not properly flush the TLB when completing, potentially leaving access to a physical page after it has been released to the page allocator. A local attacker could use this to cause a denial of service , expose sensitive information, or possibly execute arbitrary code. Various other issues were also addressed.

tags | advisory, denial of service, arbitrary, kernel, local
systems | linux, ubuntu
advisories | CVE-2018-17972, CVE-2018-18281, CVE-2018-18445, CVE-2018-18653, CVE-2018-18955, CVE-2018-6559
MD5 | 797f806913c130a0d4051adda370818d
Ubuntu Security Notice USN-3832-1
Posted Nov 30, 2018
Authored by Ubuntu | Site security.ubuntu.com

Ubuntu Security Notice 3832-1 - Jann Horn discovered that the procfs file system implementation in the Linux kernel did not properly restrict the ability to inspect the kernel stack of an arbitrary task. A local attacker could use this to expose sensitive information. Jann Horn discovered that the mremap system call in the Linux kernel did not properly flush the TLB when completing, potentially leaving access to a physical page after it has been released to the page allocator. A local attacker could use this to cause a denial of service , expose sensitive information, or possibly execute arbitrary code. Various other issues were also addressed.

tags | advisory, denial of service, arbitrary, kernel, local
systems | linux, ubuntu
advisories | CVE-2018-17972, CVE-2018-18281, CVE-2018-18445, CVE-2018-18653, CVE-2018-18955, CVE-2018-6559
MD5 | e6fcaa3ecb5ddac3d3d7836f6838675e
Linux mremap() TLB Flush Too Late
Posted Oct 29, 2018
Authored by Jann Horn, Google Security Research

Linux has an issue where mremap() performs a TLB flush too late with concurrent ftruncate().

tags | exploit
systems | linux
advisories | CVE-2018-18281
MD5 | 662f158d83c31c10c9b25a7d01c09b0a
Linux VMA Use-After-Free
Posted Sep 26, 2018
Authored by Jann Horn, Google Security Research

Linux suffers from a VMA use-after-free vulnerability via a buggy vmacache_flush_all() fastpath.

tags | exploit
systems | linux
advisories | CVE-2018-17182
MD5 | f1861d71fffe7fe2825d8cc77332fd6a
Kernel Live Patch Security Notice LSN-0029-1
Posted Aug 30, 2017
Authored by Benjamin M. Romer

It was discovered that the Linux kernel did not honor the UEFI secure boot mode when performing a kexec operation. A local attacker could use this to bypass secure boot restrictions. Huang Weller discovered that the ext4 filesystem implementation in the Linux kernel mishandled a needs-flushing-before-commit list. A local attacker could use this to expose sensitive information.

tags | advisory, kernel, local
systems | linux
advisories | CVE-2015-7837, CVE-2017-7495
MD5 | e1cdddf8c51cfb6dc9e25a8466744db4
Ubuntu Security Notice USN-3405-1
Posted Aug 28, 2017
Authored by Ubuntu | Site security.ubuntu.com

Ubuntu Security Notice 3405-1 - It was discovered that a use-after-free vulnerability existed in the POSIX message queue implementation in the Linux kernel. A local attacker could use this to cause a denial of service or possibly execute arbitrary code. Huang Weller discovered that the ext4 filesystem implementation in the Linux kernel mishandled a needs-flushing-before-commit list. A local attacker could use this to expose sensitive information. Various other issues were also addressed.

tags | advisory, denial of service, arbitrary, kernel, local
systems | linux, osx, ubuntu
advisories | CVE-2015-7837, CVE-2017-11176, CVE-2017-7495, CVE-2017-7541
MD5 | 179b8f597770848ddee280743b07f0a7
WebKit JSC Incorrect Scope Register Handling
Posted Jul 25, 2017
Authored by Google Security Research, lokihardt

WebKit suffers from a JSC incorrect scope register handling in DFG::ByteCodeParser::flush(InlineStackEntry* inlineStackEntry).

tags | exploit
advisories | CVE-2017-7018
MD5 | 8ee249918143ed15fd4a0095efcb75b7
Linux x86_64 Polymorphic Flush IPTables Shellcode
Posted Mar 5, 2017
Authored by Robert L. Taylor

47 bytes small Linux x86_64 polymorphic flush iptables shellcode.

tags | shellcode
systems | linux
MD5 | ee87908add90889442b2e00fe93cd29e
NaCl Sandbox Escape For Rowhammer
Posted Mar 10, 2015
Authored by Mark Seaborn

This is a proof-of-concept exploit that is able to escape from Native Client's x86-64 sandbox on machines that are susceptible to the DRAM "rowhammer" problem. It works by inducing a bit flip in read-only code so that the code is no longer safe, producing instruction sequences that wouldn't pass NaCl's x86-64 validator. Note that this uses the CLFLUSH instruction, so it doesn't work in newer versions of NaCl where this instruction is disallowed by the validator.

tags | exploit, x86
systems | linux
MD5 | a775e7efeb523745c95d154aff727703
FreeBSD Security Advisory - stdio Buffer Overflow
Posted Dec 10, 2014
Site security.freebsd.org

FreeBSD Security Advisory - A programming error in the standard I/O library's __sflush() function could erroneously adjust the buffered stream's internal state even when no write actually occurred in the case when write(2) system call returns an error. The accounting mismatch would accumulate, if the caller does not check for stream status and will eventually lead to a heap buffer overflow. Such overflows may lead to data corruption or the execution of arbitrary code at the privilege level of the calling program.

tags | advisory, overflow, arbitrary
systems | freebsd
advisories | CVE-2014-8611
MD5 | a0b764641601f4e8629003f59b114d23
Mandriva Linux Security Advisory 2014-067
Posted Apr 9, 2014
Authored by Mandriva | Site mandriva.com

Mandriva Linux Security Advisory 2014-067 - The Montgomery ladder implementation in OpenSSL through 1.0.0l does not ensure that certain swap operations have a constant-time behavior, which makes it easier for local users to obtain ECDSA nonces via a FLUSH+RELOAD cache side-channel attack.

tags | advisory, local
systems | linux, mandriva
advisories | CVE-2014-0076
MD5 | 75101ad8cfc951d035959f7c4ed1b87a
Red Hat Security Advisory 2013-1458-01
Posted Oct 24, 2013
Authored by Red Hat | Site access.redhat.com

Red Hat Security Advisory 2013-1458-01 - The GNU Privacy Guard is a tool for encrypting data and creating digital signatures, compliant with the proposed OpenPGP Internet standard and the S/MIME standard. It was found that GnuPG was vulnerable to the Yarom/Falkner flush+reload cache side-channel attack on the RSA secret exponent. An attacker able to execute a process on the logical CPU that shared the L3 cache with the GnuPG process could possibly use this flaw to obtain portions of the RSA secret key.

tags | advisory
systems | linux, redhat
advisories | CVE-2012-6085, CVE-2013-4242, CVE-2013-4351, CVE-2013-4402
MD5 | 45fc1e00fb43f350d85dd774dc4ad400
Red Hat Security Advisory 2013-1457-01
Posted Oct 24, 2013
Authored by Red Hat | Site access.redhat.com

Red Hat Security Advisory 2013-1457-01 - The libgcrypt library provides general-purpose implementations of various cryptographic algorithms. It was found that GnuPG was vulnerable to the Yarom/Falkner flush+reload cache side-channel attack on the RSA secret exponent. An attacker able to execute a process on the logical CPU that shared the L3 cache with the GnuPG process could possibly use this flaw to obtain portions of the RSA secret key.

tags | advisory
systems | linux, redhat
advisories | CVE-2013-4242
MD5 | 8288b414bb44822fc082647925d9d514
LIXIL Satis Toilet Hard-Coded Bluetooth PIN
Posted Aug 2, 2013
Authored by Dan Crowley | Site trustwave.com

LIXIL Satis Toilet suffers from having a hard-coded bluetooth PIN of 0000. Attackers can cause your toilet to repeatedly flush. Yes, this is a real advisory.

tags | exploit
advisories | CVE-2013-4866
MD5 | 7608f52aea3d01f53c378eba4365c1a6
Cisco Security Advisory 20130801-lsaospf
Posted Aug 1, 2013
Authored by Cisco Systems | Site cisco.com

Cisco Security Advisory - Multiple Cisco products are affected by a vulnerability involving the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Routing Protocol Link State Advertisement (LSA) database. This vulnerability could allow an unauthenticated attacker to take full control of the OSPF Autonomous System (AS) domain routing table, blackhole traffic, and intercept traffic. The attacker could trigger this vulnerability by injecting crafted OSPF packets. Successful exploitation could cause flushing of the routing table on a targeted router, as well as propagation of the crafted OSPF LSA type 1 update throughout the OSPF AS domain. To exploit this vulnerability, an attacker must accurately determine certain parameters within the LSA database on the target router. This vulnerability can only be triggered by sending crafted unicast or multicast LSA type 1 packets. No other LSA type packets can trigger this vulnerability. OSPFv3 is not affected by this vulnerability. Fabric Shortest Path First (FSPF) protocol is not affected by this vulnerability. Cisco has released free software updates that address this vulnerability. Workarounds that mitigate this vulnerability are available.

tags | advisory, protocol
systems | cisco
MD5 | c90853feeb4af88402b4feb542deae80
Ubuntu Security Notice USN-1923-1
Posted Aug 1, 2013
Authored by Ubuntu | Site security.ubuntu.com

Ubuntu Security Notice 1923-1 - Yuval Yarom and Katrina Falkner discovered a timing-based information leak, known as Flush+Reload, that could be used to trace execution in programs. GnuPG and Libgcrypt followed different execution paths based on key-related data, which could be used to expose the contents of private keys.

tags | advisory
systems | linux, ubuntu
advisories | CVE-2013-4242
MD5 | 310581af51e80deb907a60467ad5dc7e
Linux/x86 IPTables Flush Shellcode
Posted Feb 22, 2013
Authored by Hamza Megahed

43 bytes small iptables --flush shellcode for Linux/x86.

tags | x86, shellcode
systems | linux
MD5 | 562ff3228442fccabe38183119fcee14
Red Hat Security Advisory 2011-0859
Posted Jun 9, 2011
Authored by Red Hat | Site access.redhat.com

Red Hat Security Advisory 2011-0859 - The cyrus-imapd packages contain a high-performance mail server with IMAP, POP3, NNTP, and Sieve support. It was discovered that cyrus-imapd did not flush the received commands buffer after switching to TLS encryption for IMAP, LMTP, NNTP, and POP3 sessions. A man-in-the-middle attacker could use this flaw to inject protocol commands into a victim's TLS session initialization messages. This could lead to those commands being processed by cyrus-imapd, potentially allowing the attacker to steal the victim's mail or authentication credentials. Various other issues were also addressed.

tags | advisory, imap, protocol
systems | linux, redhat
advisories | CVE-2011-1926
MD5 | 282a2dc5e3eb4630e709b008961d9b6b
Mandriva Linux Security Advisory 2011-004
Posted Jan 11, 2011
Authored by Mandriva | Site mandriva.com

Mandriva Linux Security Advisory 2011-004 - Multiple format string vulnerabilities in the phar extension in PHP 5.3 before 5.3.2 allow context-dependent attackers to obtain sensitive information and possibly execute arbitrary code via a crafted phar:// URI that is not properly handled by the phar_stream_flush, phar_parse_url, or phar_wrapper_open_dir function in ext/phar/dirstream.c, which triggers errors in the php_stream_wrapper_log_error function. The updated packages have been upgraded to the latest version and patched to correct this issue.

tags | advisory, arbitrary, php, vulnerability
systems | linux, mandriva
advisories | CVE-2010-2094
MD5 | 0467797d99302d2d5d8cad5a9aa1d342
MOPS-2010-024 - PHP phar_stream_flush Format String
Posted May 25, 2010
Authored by Stefan Esser | Site php-security.org

Month Of PHP Security - The new phar extension in PHP 5.3 contains a format string vulnerability in the internal phar_stream_flush() function. PHP versions 5.3 through 5.3.2 are affected.

tags | exploit, php
MD5 | 5b93e5818bcf5b0b9f8840853997dc2c
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