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Posted Dec 21, 1999


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<title>GAO/OSI-97-2 Investigators Guide to Sources of Information</title>
<img src="http://www.gao.gov/graphics/hrthick.gif"><br>
<h1>Investigators Guide to Sources of Information</h1>
<H2>Chapter 4<BR>Electronic Databases </H2>

<img src="http://www.gao.gov/graphics/hrthin.gif"><p>

<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE135">Central Index System (CIS)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE136">Consular Lookout and Support System (CLASS)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE137">Defense Central and Investigations Index (DCII)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE138">El Paso Intelligence Center (EPIC)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE139">Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval (EDGAR)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE140">Federal Procurement Data Center (FPDC)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE141">Fingerprint Identification Records System (FIRS)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE142">Interpol Case Tracking System (ICTS)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE143">Interstate Identification Index (III)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE144">Joint Maritime Information Element (JMIE)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE145">Law Enforcement Support Center (LESC)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE146">List of Parties Excluded From Federal Procurement and Nonprocurement Programs</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE147">Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs Information System (NADDIS)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE148">National Alien Information Lookout System (NAILS)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE149">National Crime Information Center (NCIC)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE150">National Law Enforcement Telecommunications System (NLETS)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE151">National Tracing Center (NTC)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE152">National White Collar Crime Center</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE153">Nonimmigrant Information System (NIIS)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE154">Regional Information Sharing System (RISS)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE155">Scorpio</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE156">Securities Information Center</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE157">Sentry</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE158">South Pacific Islands Criminal Intelligence Network (SPICIN)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE159">Treasury Enforcement Communications System (TECS)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE160">Other Databases</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE161">CDB Infotek</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE162">Cyberhound Online</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE163">Datastar</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE164">Deluxe Chexsystems</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE165">Dialog</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE166">Dun &amp Bradstreet United States</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE167">Equifax</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE168">Experian</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE169">Global Scan Usa Inc.</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE170">Information America</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE171">International Business Machines (IBM) Internet Connection</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE172">Lexis-Nexis</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE173">Metronet</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE174">National Center For Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE175">National Fraud Information Center (NFIC)</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE176">National Insurance Crime Bureau (NICB) Online</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE177">Questel-Orbit</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE178">Standard &amp Poor's Databases</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE179">Trans Union</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE180">USdatalink</a><br>
<LI><A HREF = "#PAGE181">Westlaw</a><br>



The Canadian Interface is a semiautomated link between law
enforcement information networks of the United States and
Canada. It allows the 50 states, federal agencies that are
members of the National Law Enforcement Telecommunications
System, and their Canadian counterparts to exchange police
information through the National Law Enforcement
Telecommunications System, using the INTERPOL National
Central Bureaus in Washington and Ottawa as the necessary
interface. <P>

See the discussion in this chapter on the National Law
Enforcement Telecommunications System for the type of
information available from the Canadian Interface. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE135"></A>

CIS is an INS system that assists in locating files that
contain information on legal immigrants, naturalized
citizens, and aliens who have been formally deported or
excluded. CIS also contains information on some aliens who
have come to the attention of INS because of an
investigation or an application for benefits. Available
information usually includes name, birthdate, nationality,
applicable INS files control office, date of entry, and
immigration status. The immigration status should not be
considered definitive unless confirmed by an INS officer.

Local INS offices or the El Paso Intelligence Center can
provide directions to the appropriate state coordinator.
Requests may be made by providing either a file number or
name and birthdate. The El Paso Intelligence Center is
discussed further later in this chapter. <P>

Also, see the discussion in this chapter on INS' Law
Enforcement Support Center, the point of contact for
federal, state, and local criminal justice agencies that
want to know the immigration status of a suspect alien
arrested for committing an aggravated felony. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE136"></A>

The Department of State's CLASS consists of an automated
database of several million names including those of aliens
who have been found ineligible for visas; those whose visa
applications require a Department of State opinion prior to
issuance; and those who might be ineligible for a visa
should they apply for one. CLASS also includes the network
of telecommunication lines linking diplomatic posts to the
Washington, D.C. computer and the terminals used for CLASS
access at posts abroad. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE137"></A>
(DCII) </H3>

DCII is the automated central repository that identifies
investigations conducted by DOD investigative agencies and
personnel security determinations made by DOD adjudicative
authorities. <P>

DCII is an unclassified system that is operated and
maintained by the Defense Investigative Service. Access is
limited to DOD and other federal agencies with
adjudicative, investigative, and/or counterintelligence
missions. Information contained in the DCII is protected by
the Privacy Act of 1994. <P>

The DCII database consists of an alphabetical index of
names and titles of individuals that appear as subjects,
cosubjects, victims, or cross-referenced incidental
subjects in investigative documents maintained by DOD
criminal, counterintelligence, fraud, and personnel
security investigative activities. In addition, personnel
security determinations are maintained, by subject, in

<A NAME = "PAGE138"></A>

EPIC is a cooperative established to collect, process, and
disseminate intelligence information concerning illicit
drug and currency movement, alien smuggling, weapons
trafficking, and related activity. Staffed by personnel
from 15 federal agencies, its primary functions are (1) to
disrupt the flow of illicit drugs at the highest
trafficking level through the exchange of time-sensitive,
tactical intelligence dealing principally with drug
movement and (2) to support, through the intelligence
process, other programs of interest to EPIC's participating
agencies, such as alien smuggling and weapons trafficking.

EPIC is mandated to support local law enforcement entities
with drug intelligence, all 50 states, Puerto Rico, U.S.
Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, District of Columbia,
U.S. Forest Service, National Marine Fisheries, Bureau of
Prisons, Amtrak, and DOD through South COM, Joint
Interagency Task Force, East and West, and Joint Task Force
6. <P>

The EPIC member agencies include DEA, INS, Customs, Coast
Guard, ATF, FAA, USMS, FBI, IRS, Secret Service, Department
of State, Department of the Interior, Central Intelligence
Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, and DOD. Member
agencies have direct access to all EPIC information, with
appropriate safeguards to provide for the protection and/or
secure communication of highly sensitive or classified
information. State and local law enforcement entities have
access to EPIC data through a designated group within the
respective organization or through a member agency. <P>

EPIC can be reached 24 hours a day, 7 days a week at
1-888-USE-EPIC (873-3742). <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE139"></A>

EDGAR accelerates the receipt, acceptance, dissemination,
and analysis of time-sensitive corporate information filed
with the SEC. It performs automated collection, validation,
indexing, acceptance, and forwarding of submissions by
companies and others who are required by law to file forms
with the SEC. Not all documents filed with the SEC by
public companies will be available on EDGAR for the
following reasons: some documents are not yet permitted to
be filed electronically, some submissions are voluntary,
other documents may be filed manually, and filings by
foreign companies are not required to be filed on EDGAR.
Public filings to the SEC can be viewed on the SEC home
page within 48 hours of being filed. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE140"></A>

FPDC is a convenient source of consolidated federal buying
information. It has governmentwide procurement information
beginning with fiscal year 1979. The FPDC master file
contains detailed data regarding the procurement actions of
60 federal agencies. The system can provide a wide variety
of information about federal buying. It contains 24 data
elements, including the name of the agency that awarded the
contract; contract number including order and or
modification number; purchase office and address; date of
award; principal product or service; and the name and
address of the contractor. A standard report is published
each quarter which examines the data from a variety of
perspectives. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE141"></A>
(FIRS) </H3>

Formerly titled the Identification Division Records System,
the FBI's FIRS performs identification and criminal history
record information functions and maintains those records
for (1) federal, state, local, and foreign criminal justice
agencies, (2) noncriminal justice agencies, and (3) other
entities. It also provides identification assistance during
disasters and for other humanitarian purposes. FIRS
represents (1) individuals fingerprinted as a result of
arrest or incarceration, (2) persons fingerprinted as a
result of federal employment applications or military
service, (3) persons fingerprinted for alien registration
and naturalization purposes, and (4) individuals who want
their fingerprints on record with the FBI for personal
identification purposes. In addition to the criminal
records of about 24 million people in the automated file,
there are approximately 10 million older records in the
manual files. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE142"></A>

ICTS, located at USNCB in Washington, D.C., contains
information about persons, property, and organizations
involved in international criminal activity. USNCB can
determine the existence of an international connection to
an investigation or of any previous international criminal
activity. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE143"></A>

The III system contains information on criminal records of
about 24 million people who were born in 1956 or later and
have an FBI record. The system also contains information on
persons born prior to 1956 whose first arrest was recorded
with the FBI in 1974 or later, and selected older records
for certain fugitives and repeat offenders. See the
discussion on the National Crime Information Center in this
chapter. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE144"></A>

JMIE--a consortium of U.S. government agencies from the law
enforcement and intelligence communities--has developed a
consolidated maritime database. Consortium members are the
Office of Naval Intelligence, Military Sealift Command,
DEA, Department of State, Executive Office of the
President's Office of National Drug Control Policy,
Customs, Central Intelligence Agency, Coast Guard, Maritime
Administration, Department of Energy, Defense Intelligence
Agency, INS, and National Security Agency. <P>

The system includes information on maritime-related law
enforcement and national foreign intelligence data to meet
members' operational missions, such as narcotics
interdiction, smuggling, sea and defense zone surveillance,
border control, petroleum traffic monitoring, and emergency
sealift management. <P>

Approximately 35 operational sites allow access to data
sources that provide at-sea and in-port location
information and characteristics on commercial and private
vessels and vessel registration files for Florida,
California, Delaware, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.

<A NAME = "PAGE145"></A>

INS' LESC--located in South Burlington, Vermont--provides
information on aliens who have been arrested. The center's
staff queries six INS databases in responding to requests
from federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies.
Direct access to the center is available from the National
Law Enforcement Telecommunications System, 24 hours a day,
7 days a week. Because of the sensitive nature of the
information provided by LESC, it can only be accessed by
agencies authorized to request criminal record information
over the National Law Enforcement Telecommunications
System. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE146"></A>

The List is maintained by GSA for the use of federal
programs and activities. Issued monthly, it identifies
those parties excluded from receiving (1) federal contracts
or certain subcontracts and (2) certain types of federal
financial and nonfinancial assistance and benefits. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE147"></A>

NADDIS inquiries should be limited to narcotics-related
cases or files, smugglers of funds, other contraband, and
aliens. NADDIS is accessible through EPIC and local DEA
offices. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE148"></A>
(NAILS) </H3>

NAILS is an INS index of names of individuals who may be
excludable from the United States. All names in NAILS are
passed to the Treasury Enforcement Communications System
(TECS), which is discussed later in this chapter.
Therefore, a search of NAILS is not necessary if TECS has
been searched. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE149"></A>

NCIC is a widely used law enforcement computer system. Most
major law enforcement agencies have NCIC connections. <P>

NCIC is often compared to a large &quotfile cabinet,&quot
with each file having its own label or classification. This
cabinet of data contains information concerning the
following: <P>

<UL><LI>stolen, missing, or recovered guns; </UL>

<UL><LI>stolen articles (must have a serial number);

<UL><LI>wanted persons (for questioning or arrest); </UL>

<UL><LI>stolen/wanted vehicles (autos, aircraft,
motorcycles); </UL>

<UL><LI>stolen license plates; </UL>

<UL><LI>stolen, embezzled, or missing securities, stocks,
bonds, and currency; </UL>

<UL><LI>stolen/wanted boats; </UL>

<UL><LI>missing persons; </UL>

<UL><LI>Index to State Criminal History Records and
Criminal History Records of Federal Offenders; </UL>

<UL><LI>unidentified persons; </UL>

<UL><LI>foreign fugitives; </UL>

<UL><LI>ATF Violent Felon File; </UL>

<UL><LI>U.S. Secret Service Protection File; </UL>

<UL><LI>gang and terrorist organizations file; </UL>

<UL><LI>deported felon file; </UL>

<UL><LI>Originating Agency Identifier File; and </UL>

<UL><LI>protective order file. </UL>

The NCIC, through the Interstate Identification Index (III)
system, can provide an investigator with information on the
criminal records of about 24 million people. See the
discussion on III in this chapter. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE150"></A>

NLETS is a sophisticated message-switching network that
links all law enforcement and criminal justice agencies in
the United States; Puerto Rico; and, through a computerized
link, to INTERPOL Canada. Agencies include state and local
law enforcement agencies, motor vehicle and licensing
departments, and a wide variety of federal enforcement
agencies. The latter includes Customs, FBI, DOJ, Secret
Service, USMS, Naval Criminal Investigative Service, Air
Force Office of Special Investigations, Department of
State, Department of the Army, and Department of the
Interior. The National Insurance Crime Bureau is also
linked to NLETS. <P>

A great deal of information is available through the
network, including the following: <P>

<UL><LI>vehicle registrations by license or vehicle
identification number; </UL>

<UL><LI>driver's license and driver history by name and
birthdate or driver's license number (some states
support driver's license queries by name only); </UL>

<UL><LI>criminal records by name and birthdate, state
identification number, or FBI number; </UL>

<UL><LI>boat registrations by hull number, registration
number, or name; </UL>

<UL><LI>snowmobile registrations by registration number,
vehicle identification number, or owner's name and
birthdate; </UL>

<UL><LI>hazardous material file data by UN number, which
is an international recognized code for hazardous
material; </UL>

<UL><LI>private aircraft tracking data by registration
number or date range; </UL>

<UL><LI>aircraft registrations by registration number,
serial number, or names of registrant; </UL>

<UL><LI>directory of participating agencies by
originating agency identifier or location; </UL>

<UL><LI>registration information on diplomatic license
plates; </UL>

<UL><LI>index to parole/probation and corrections
information; and </UL>

<UL><LI>sex offenders registration information. </UL>

Through an interface to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police's
Canadian Police Information Centre, many files are
available, including the following: <P>

<UL><LI>criminal history by name or FPS (Canadian
national identification number); </UL>

<UL><LI>wanted persons by name and birthdate; </UL>

<UL><LI>stolen vehicles by license number or vehicle
identification number; </UL>

<UL><LI>stolen articles by serial number; </UL>

<UL><LI>stolen guns by serial number; </UL>

<UL><LI>stolen securities by serial number, corporation
name, issuer, or name of owner; and </UL>

<UL><LI>stolen boats/motors by license number, hull
number, registration number, or name of owner. </UL>

Users have the capability to send free-form messages to
other users either individually or via a broadcast message.

<A NAME = "PAGE151"></A>

NTC, a branch of the Firearms Enforcement Division of ATF,
provides 24-hour assistance to ATF field offices and law
enforcement agencies worldwide. Using ATF's Firearms
Tracing System, NTC systematically tracks firearms used to
commit crimes from their place of manufacture to the place
of sale. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE152"></A>

The Center is dedicated to supporting law enforcement in
the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of economic
crimes and computer-related crimes. The Center has a
database system that contains information on individuals
and businesses suspected of economic criminal activity,
including advanced fee loan schemes, credit card fraud,
computer fraud, and securities and investment fraud. It can
be contacted at (800) 221-4424 or (804) 323-3563. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE153"></A>

NIIS is an INS system that contains information on the
arrivals and departures of nonimmigrants, or aliens
entering the United States for a temporary stay. Canadians
and Mexicans who visit for pleasure are not entered into
the system. NIIS also contains entry and departure data on
students, except classes Fl and Ml. Information can be
queried and retrieved by nationality, port of entry,
admission class, and date of entry. <P>

See the discussion on the Central Index System in this
chapter. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE154"></A>

More than 4,500 local, state, and federal law enforcement
agencies are members of RISS. Comprised of 6 regional
projects, RISS operates in 50 states, the District of
Columbia, and Canada. <P>

Although the following RISS projects focus on the overall
objective noted above, each project is allowed
individuality in its choice of multijurisdictional crimes
to target and in its range of services by which to support
member agencies. <P>

<UL><LI>Middle Atlantic-Great Lakes Organized Crime Law
Enforcement Network (MAGLOCLEN)--This project includes
the states of Delaware, Indiana, Maryland, Michigan,
New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. It also
encompasses the District of Columbia and two provinces
of Canada, Ontario and Quebec. MAGLOCLEN focuses on
organized criminal activity, criminal gangs, and
violent crime. </UL>

<UL><LI>Mid-States Organized Crime Information Center
(MOCIC)--This project provides services to member
agencies in Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota,
Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and
Wisconsin, as well as Canada. MOCIC focuses on
narcotics trafficking, professional traveling
criminals, organized crime, criminal gangs, and
violent crime. </UL>

<UL><LI>New England State Police Information Network
(NESPIN)--Encompassing agencies in Connecticut, Maine,
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and
Vermont as well as Canada, NESPIN focuses on narcotics
trafficking, organized crime, major criminal activity,
criminal gangs, and violent crime. </UL>

<UL><LI>Regional Organized Crime Information Center
(ROCIC)--This project includes the states of Alabama,
Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana,
Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina,
Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. It also
encompasses Puerto Rico. ROCIC focuses on narcotics
violators, professional traveling criminals, organized
crime, criminal gangs, and violent crime. </UL>

<UL><LI>Rocky Mountain Information Network (RMIN)--This
project provides services to member agencies in
Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico,
Utah, and Wyoming, as well as Canada. RMIN focuses on
narcotics trafficking, associated criminal activity,
criminal gangs, and violent crime. </UL>

<UL><LI>Western States Information Network (WSIN)--This
project provides services to member agencies in
Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington, as
well as Canada. WSIN focuses on narcotics, narcotics
trafficking, and criminal organizations/associations.

<A NAME = "PAGE155"></A>

This on-line service is maintained by the Library of
Congress and its Congressional Research Service (CRS). <P>

<UL><LI>The Library of Congress Computerized Catalog
lists works catalogued by the Library of Congress. In
addition to being available through the Scorpio
system, the catalog, as well as other information from
the Library of Congress, is now accessible via the
Internet. </UL>

<UL><LI>The Bibliographic Citation File contains
citations to journal articles on many aspects of
public policy, as well as citations to congressional
publications, government documents, and independent
studies. This file contains material dating back to
1976. </UL>

<UL><LI>Congressional Bill Status Files are files that
can be searched by subject (e.g., acid rain) or by
bill number to determine the status of a bill, such as
its resolution, ratification, and amendments, if any.
This file can also be searched by Committee,
Subcommittee, or Member's name. In many cases a digest
of the bill is provided; however, for electronic
access to the full text of congressional legislation,
or to search the Congressional Record, use the
Internet. </UL>

<A NAME = "PAGE156"></A>

Located in Boston, Massachusetts, the Securities
Information Center operates SEC's Lost and Stolen
Securities Program. The Center maintains a central database
that receives and processes reports and inquiries about
missing and stolen securities. Established in 1977 to
reduce trafficking in lost, stolen, and counterfeit
securities, the Center is used by investment professionals.
The Center's database currently consists of reports of
lost, stolen, and counterfeit certificates. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE157"></A>
<H3>SENTRY </H3>

Sentry is a Federal Bureau of Prisons on-line database that
contains information on all federal prisoners incarcerated
since 1980. The information includes physical description,
inmate profile, inmate location or release location,
numerical identifiers, personal history data, security
designation, past and present institution assignments,
custody classification, and sentencing information. To
obtain information, contact the Sacramento Intelligence
Unit. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE158"></A>

SPICIN is a law enforcement program of the South Pacific
Chiefs of Police Organization comprising 21 member
countries of American Samoa, Australia, the Commonwealth of
Northern Mariana Islands (Saipan), Cook Islands, the
Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, French Polynesia
(Tahiti), Guam, Kiribati, the Kingdom of Tonga, Marshall
Islands, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Palau,
Papua - New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and
Western Samoa. <P>

The primary purpose of SPICIN is to promote the gathering,
recording, and exchanging of information not otherwise
available through normal channels. Information made
available concerns drug trafficking, mobile criminals,
organized/white collar crime, terrorism, the use of the
Pacific Island waters and aircraft, and other information
of a criminal nature that concerns law enforcement in the
Pacific region and elsewhere. <P>

In addition to the 21 member countries, SPICIN can provide
assistance to the national and international law
enforcement communities regarding <P>

<UL><LI>location of suspects/fugitives/witnesses, </UL>

<UL><LI>missing/wanted persons, </UL>

<UL><LI>criminal history checks, </UL>

<UL><LI>firearm checks, </UL>

<UL><LI>license plate checks (stolen plates), </UL>

<UL><LI>driver's license checks, </UL>

<UL><LI>vehicle registration, </UL>

<UL><LI>military checks, and </UL>

<UL><LI>stolen vessels. </UL>

<A NAME = "PAGE159"></A>
(TECS) </H3>

TECS is a Department of the Treasury system managed by
Customs. It was designed to provide controlled access to a
large database of information about suspects and to
interface with a number of other law enforcement systems.
These capabilities are provided to TECS users through
various applications, including the following. <P>

<UL><LI>Inspection/Interagency Border Inspection System
(IBIS) applications facilitate passenger processing
through the implementation of innovative border
control technology. </UL>

<UL><LI>Information sharing applications permit on-line
entry and maintenance of subject records and provide
access to other data sources including NCIC/NLETS and
various commercial directories. TECS' role as the IBIS
clearinghouse strongly supports Customs' information
sharing strategy by providing a formal mechanism for
acquiring relevant enforcement data from the IBIS
member agencies. In support of interagency data
exchange agreements, TECS provides both on-line and
tape interfaces for capturing information from
external data sources. TECS applications allow subject
queries and reviews of linkage relationships between
subjects and other types of records. Primary query
history information is available for person and
vehicle subjects. </UL>

<UL><LI>Investigative applications permit on-line entry
of enforcement reports including the capture, storage,
and display of full narrative text. </UL>

<UL><LI>Management information applications allow users
to view, print, or download previously generated
reports. </UL>

<A NAME = "PAGE160"></A>


ALR, which began operations in 1991, is a private
international information clearinghouse on stolen art and
antiques that offers several services to the art community,
law enforcement, and the insurance industry. The register
contains a database of over 80,000 items reported as stolen
or missing by INTERPOL, state and local police, insurance
companies, the FBI, foreign governments, private
collectors, art dealers, and museums. Prospective art
buyers may check the ALR to see whether a proposed purchase
is stolen property before buying a work of art. Also, theft
victims and law enforcement officials may register stolen
works of art in the database. <P>

Shareholders in the ALR include the IFAR, Sotheby's,
Christie's, Phillips, Nordstern Insurance, Aon Corporation,
the Society of Fine Auctioneers, and the British Antique
Dealers Association. ALR can be reached at (212) 391-8791.

<A NAME = "PAGE161"></A>

CDB Infotek is an on-line source of public records,
including more than 3 billion records collected from local,
county, and state governments all across the United States;
the federal government; and various businesses. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE162"></A>

CyberHound Online provides information on databases,
discussion groups, libraries, companies, people,
associations, and newspapers that have home pages on the
Internet. Each entry includes name; access paths, including
gopher, telnet, file transfer protocol, electronic mail,
and web addresses; and description of the site. CyberHound
covers all subject areas accessible via the Internet and is
international in scope. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE163"></A>

DataStar, a service of Knight-Ridder Information, Inc.
provides worldwide access to over 350 databases and focuses
on business data. Information available includes
directory-type listings of companies or associations,
company financial statements, bibliographic citations, and
the complete text of journal articles. Subscribers can
reach DataStar databases at its home page or via telnet.

<A NAME = "PAGE164"></A>

Deluxe ChexSystems provides data on over 11 million
individuals and businesses that have had their account
closed for cause by their financial institution due to
fraud or abuse. Reasons include automatic teller machine
fraud, check kiting, and writing checks on closed accounts.
Records on abused accounts are maintained for 5 years. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE165"></A>
<H3>DIALOG </H3>

DIALOG is a Knight-Ridder Information, Inc. service that
provides access to over 450 on-line databases and more than
45 CD-ROM titles. DIALOG provides professional librarians
and researchers with access to articles, conference
proceedings, news, and statistics from many subject areas,
such as scientific, technical, medical, business, trade,
and academic disciplines. It also has access to over 100
full-text newspapers worldwide as well as thousands of
magazines and journals. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE166"></A>

This on-line directory contains information on more than
1.1 million U.S. business establishments with 10 or more
employees. Data provided includes company name, address,
and telephone number; type of business, chief executive
officer, company status, and subsidiary; language
preference and geographic codes; number of employees at a
given location and total number of employees; and total
sales volume. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE167"></A>

Equifax provides credit and commercial information, card
processing, check authorization, analytics and consulting,
and financial software. Some of the services provided by
the Equifax subsidiary CDB Infotek for locating persons or
businesses in the United States follow. <P>

<UL><LI>CDB Infotek's exclusive Info:PROBE, a locating
tool available anywhere, can instantly search hundreds
of nationwide, regional, and local databases to
determine where information exists for a particular
subject. </UL>

<UL><LI>Nationwide Consumer Reporting Agencies can be
used to obtain the most recent address that has been
reported to any of the three major nationwide credit
reporting agencies and other nationwide consumer
reporting sources. </UL>

<UL><LI>People Tracker can identify consumer address and
demographic information on a nationwide basis. </UL>

<UL><LI>National Address Changes can be used to obtain a
3- to 12-year history of address changes for an
individual based on federal sources. </UL>

<A NAME = "PAGE168"></A>

Experian, which replaced TRW Information Systems and
Services, provides services on consumer and business
credit, direct marketing, and real estate information
services. Key Experian services include credit card
processing, risk management, and target marketing. Some of
these services follow. <P>

<UL><LI>Property Profile, Recent Home Sales and Home
Portfolio Reports help to estimate a home's value and
provide an understanding of a particular neighborhood.

<UL><LI>Business Snapshot Reports summarize credit
histories--including payment patterns and legal
filings--of small businesses or contractors. </UL>

<A NAME = "PAGE169"></A>

Global Scan USA Inc. is now an integral part of the Equifax
Europe group of companies. It has been developing its
position in the on-line, business information arena since
its formation in 1991. Global Scan is a multilingual (10
languages), multinational on-line gateway service providing
subscribers with (1) a way to access credit reports and
financial statements on any public or private company in
the world and (2) country reports, including political and
trade reports and country filing requirements. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE170"></A>

Information America, an affiliate of West Publishing,
offers on-line databases and document services that can be
used to obtain background data about businesses, locate
assets and people, and retrieve official public records. It
can also provide ownership and financial information on
businesses. Information America can be reached on the
Internet or by calling (800) 532-9876. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE171"></A>

IBM Internet Connection is a large international provider
of on-line services that offers its subscribers Internet
connection services, electronic mail, newsgroups, and
business services. In addition, it provides more than 860
dial-in numbers in approximately 50 countries. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE172"></A>

A division of Reed Elsevier Inc., the LEXIS full-text legal
information service contains major archives of federal and
state case law, continuously updated statutes of all 50
states, state and federal regulations and public records
from major states, and international legal materials from
selected countries. LEXIS Public Records Online service
provides on-line access to information from selected states
about real and personal property assets, Uniform Commercial
Code liens, secretary of state corporation filings,
verdicts and settlements, and court indices and dockets.
The NEXIS news and business information service contains
more than 7,100 sources, 3,700 of which provide their
entire publications on-line. These include the full text of
regional; national; and international newspapers, news
wires, magazines, trade journals, and business
publications. NEXIS service is the exclusive on-line
archival source for The New York Times in the legal,
business, and other professional markets. Also available
are brokerage house and industry analyst reports and public
records such as corporate filings, company records, and
property records. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE173"></A>

MetroNet, implemented by Metromail Corporation, specializes
in consumer and business information. MetroNet provides
on-line access to Metromail's National Consumer Databases
for the following purposes: <P>

<UL><LI>address verification, </UL>

<UL><LI>telephone number lookup, </UL>

<UL><LI>neighbors lookup, and </UL>

<UL><LI>change of address. </UL>

<A NAME = "PAGE174"></A>

NCMEC is a private, nonprofit organization--mandated by the
Congress--that works in cooperation with DOJ's Office of
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. It is a vital
resource for law enforcement agencies throughout the United
States in the search for missing children and the quest for
child protection. NCMEC operates a 24-hour, toll-free
hotline for the recovery of missing children in cooperation
with DOJ. It also operates a 24-hour, toll-free child
pornography tipline in cooperation with Customs and the
Postal Inspection Service. Additionally, NCMEC handles for
the Department of State, applications that seek the return
of or access to children abducted and brought to the United
States under the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of
International Child Abduction. Among its services is a
National Computer Network linked via online services with
49 state clearinghouses, the District of Columbia, the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police in Canada, New Scotland Yard
in the United Kingdom, Belgium Gendarmerie, Netherlands
Police, Australia National Police, INTERPOL, Secret Service
Forensic Services, and the Department of State. The network
allows the instant transmission of images and information
on missing child cases. The NCMEC can be contacted at
1-800-THE-LOST. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE175"></A>

NFIC--a project of the National Consumers League--helps
consumers report fraud and offers advice on how to avoid
becoming a victim. Incident reports are entered in the NFIC
database and referred electronically to the National
Electronic Fraud Database administered by the Federal Trade
Commission and the National Association of Attorneys
General. NFIC incident reports are also referred to a
variety of federal and state regulatory and enforcement
agencies--the FBI, Secret Service, U.S. Postal Inspection
Service, SEC, and U.S. Attorneys. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE176"></A>

NICB, a national, not-for-profit, tax-exempt organization
established in 1992, is supported by approximately 1,000
property/casualty insurers and self-insured companies. The
bureau maintains an on-line computer database of 300
million records that assists law enforcement officials and
insurance investigators and claims personnel in detecting
fraudulent insurance claims and identifying stolen
vehicles. NICB also has an investigative force of 200
experienced special agents who team up with insurance
investigators and law enforcement officials to uncover and
prosecute vehicle theft and insurance fraud. To obtain more
information and access to NICB, call 1-800-447-6282. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE177"></A>

Questel-Orbit, an international on-line information
company, has files on patent, trademark, scientific,
chemical, business, and news information. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE178"></A>

Standard &amp Poor, a McGraw-Hill company, offers access to
a variety of information about companies. For an Internet
link to more information about several Standard &amp Poor
resources, the McGraw-Hill Internet site offers a starting
point. Some Standard &amp Poor information is also
available as printed directories, some of which are
discussed in chapter 3. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE179"></A>

Trans Union is an international consumer credit information
company whose products include credit reports, credit and
insurance risk scoring models, target marketing systems,
preemployment evaluation reports, skip tracing and search
tools, collection services, customized lists, and
transaction services. Some of the search services follow.

<UL><LI>ATLAS is a flexible and comprehensive database
that offers a choice of four broad, automated search
categories that provide instant access to, or
confirmation of, millions of addresses and telephone
numbers. Searches are possible by subject or address,
surname, or phone number. </UL>

<UL><LI>IDSearch is an automated system that helps verify
application information or flag customers who provide
information that contradicts data on file by returning
names, addresses, and social security numbers based on
input information. </UL>

<UL><LI>TRACE is a search system that, based on the
social security index data built into Trans Union's
database, can find the current and previous addresses
of any person on file, identified by his/her social
security number. </UL>

<UL><LI>TRACEplus includes all information contained in
the TRACE report plus telephone numbers, aliases, age,
employment, and salary history, if available. </UL>

<A NAME = "PAGE180"></A>

USDatalink provides access to individuals' credit reports,
criminal records, education, workers' compensation claims,
and employment histories. A people locator service can
search for individuals using social security numbers,
names, addresses, phone numbers, and surnames. USDatalink
also gives information on vehicles from automobiles to
airplanes. The database contains information on numerous
companies including asset reports, in-depth general
reports, and case records. USDatalink provides access to
background checks, and other information reports, from
public record repositories and proprietary databases
throughout the United States. <P>

<A NAME = "PAGE181"></A>

Westlaw, a service of West Publishing, is a
computer-assisted legal research service that contains over
9,000 databases. Coverage includes federal and state court
cases, the U.S. Code Annotated and state statutes, federal
regulations, administrative law decisions, topical
databases, legal periodicals, West's Insta-Cite, West's
QuickCite, Shepard's Citations, Shepard's PreView, Black's
Law Dictionary, and public records. <P>

<img src="http://www.gao.gov/graphics/hrthin.gif"><p>
<cite>This document was last updated April 20, 1997</cite>

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