what you don't know can hurt you

Kankun Smart Socket / Mobile App Hardcoded AES Key

Kankun Smart Socket / Mobile App Hardcoded AES Key
Posted Jun 8, 2015
Authored by Aseem Jakhar

The Kankun Smart Socket device and the mobile app use a hardcoded AES 256 bit key to encrypt the commands and responses between the device and the app. The communication happens over UDP. An attacker on the local network can use the same key to encrypt and send unsolicited commands to the device and hijack it.

tags | exploit, local, udp, info disclosure
advisories | CVE-2015-4080
MD5 | 3e153875c7b3d5fdc9074e72d2e3029d

Kankun Smart Socket / Mobile App Hardcoded AES Key

Change Mirror Download
Hi List,

Vulnerability
=============
Hardcoded AES 256 bit key used in Kankun IoT/Smart socket and its mobile App

Vulnerability Description
==========================
The kankun smart socket device and the mobile app use a hardcoded AES
256 bit key to encrypt the commands and responses between the device
and the app. The communication happens over UDP. An attacker on the
local network can use the same key to encrypt and send unsolicited
commands to the device and hijack it.

CVE ID
========
CVE-2015-4080

Vendor
========
www.ikonke.com

Product
=========
Kankun Smart Socket

Disclosure Timeline
====================
1. 25 May 2015 – Reported to Vendor, no response.
2. 29 May 2015 – Reminder sent to vendor, no response.
3. 5 June 2015 – Public disclosure.

Credits
=========
1. Aseem Jakhar, Director - Research, Payatu Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
2. Since at the time of publishing the finding, we searched online for
the same and found that someone else had also published the key. In
good faith we would like to mention the same person who goes by the
handle: kankun hacker -
https://plus.google.com/109112844319840106704/posts although both the
research were independent of each other and we do not know who kankun
hacker is.

About Payatu
============
Payatu Technologies is a boutique security testing company. We
specialize in Mobile/IoT/Product/Application security testing.

PoC exploit source code
========================
https://bitbucket.org/aseemjakhar/kcmd

#
# kcmd - Kankun Sniffer and Hijacker
#
# Send encrypted ON/OFF commands to kankun smart sockets
# Sniff the commands on the network to extract password
#
# Copyright 2015 © Payatu
# Author: Aseem Jakhar aseem[at]payatu[dot]com
# Websites: www.payatu.com www.nullcon.net www.hardwear.io www.null.co.in
#
# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
#
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
# GNU General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
#
# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING,
# BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
# PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS
# BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES;
# LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
# THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE
# OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
# POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
#

To make the program work you need to:
1. Install Android NDK
2. Connect an android phone
3. Edit the MAC and PASSWD macros in kcmd.c to their actual values.
Use the sniff option to find the password and the MAC
4. run make install
5. Copy libNDK_03.so from Kankun Android App to the phone
- adb push libNDK_03.so /data/local/tmp/
5. run adb shell
6. cd /data/local/tmp
7. run ./kcmd



Technical details
==================

We performed our analysis on the Android App and the device. The user
manual specifies the app to be used for the device -
http://kk.huafeng.com:8081/none/android/smartwifi.apk The smart socket
has a newer version on the app on google play store which is also
vulnerable - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=hangzhou.zx


Communication
--------------
The communication between the app and the device happens over UDP.
The commands are Broadcasted on the network to UDP destination port 27431


App Reversing
----------------
- We decompiled the app using using apktool
- The app has a native shared library libNDK_03.so which contains the
encryption logic and the hard-coded key
- We analysed the app and got an idea of the command/response protocol
being used between the app and the device.
- The Java code uses JNI functions to encrypt and decrypt the commands
and responses. The functions are encode() and decode(). Interestingly
there is also a function called add() which adds the two parameters
and returns the result. This must definitely be a testing function
used while starting to develop the library :).

- The command and response for switching ON and OFF is a 4 step process
- Step 1 - App sends an Open/Close request (Open means Switch ON,
close means Switch OFF)
- Step 2 - Device sends a response containing a confirmation ID (a number)
- Step 3 - App sends the confirmation request along with the
confirmation ID received from the Device
- Step 4 - Device sends an Acknowledgement and Switches the device ON/OFF
- An example of the communication protocol to Switch ON the device,
assuming the MAC address of the device is “de:ad:de:ad:de:ad”, the
password set by the user is “secretpass” and the confirmation ID is
70018. If the user does not set any encryption password the string
“nopassword” is used.

APP --> lan_phone%de:ad:de:ad:de:ad%secretpass%open%request --> Device
DEVICE --> lan_device%de:ad:de:ad:de:ad%secretpass%confirm#70018%rack --> APP

APP --> lan_phone%de:ad:de:ad:de:ad%secretpass%confirm#70018%request
--> DEVICE
DEVICE --> lan_device%de:ad:de:ad:de:ad%secretpass%open%rack --> APP

- As you can see above, the communication is a simple string where
fields are separated by the % character. The fields are self
explanatory. There is also an option of wan_phone and wan_device which
we did not test.

- A quick strings output showed up the key along with other strings.
This particular string looked a little intersting and we started
reversing the native library.
- Output of $ strings libNDK_03.so

....
UUPx((
Zw--
fdsl;mewrjope456fds4fbvfnjwaugfo
java/lang/String
....


- The installed library is not stripped
- In the library the JNI encode/decode functions call
EncryptData/DecryptData respectively

00003990 <Java_hangzhou_kankun_WifiJniC_encode>:
3990: b5f0 push {r4, r5, r6, r7, lr}
3992: b085 sub sp, #20
3994: 1c11 adds r1, r2, #0
....
39b6: 2380 movs r3, #128 ; 0x80
39b8: f7ff ff0e bl 37d8 <EncryptData>
....

- The EncryptData() internally calls aes functions which means it is
using AES encryption

000037d8 <EncryptData>:
37d8: b5f0 push {r4, r5, r6, r7, lr}
37da: 465f mov r7, fp
37dc: 4656 mov r6, sl
....
3868: 9001 str r0, [sp, #4]
386a: f7fd fb8b bl f84 <aes_set_key>
....
38be: 1c29 adds r1, r5, #0
38c0: f7fd fd84 bl 13cc <aes_encrypt>

- Now to find the key we look at the code of EncryptData(). The below
code generates the memory address of the key string within the
library.

3842: 4b4e ldr r3, [pc, #312] ; (397c
<EncryptData+0x1a4>)
....
384a: 447b add r3, pc
....
384e: 3328 adds r3, #40 ; 0x28
....
397c: 00003e96 muleq r0, r6, lr

- Lets look at the code:
- The ldr instruction loads the value 0x3e96 in r3, which is the
value at address 0x397c.
- The “add r3, pc” instruction adds 384e to r3. Because of
pipelining and THUMB mode while executing the “add r3, pc” instruction
pc will point 4 bytes ahead of the address 0x384a i.e. 0x384e.
- Finally the instruction “adds r3, #40” adds 0x28 (decimal 40) to r3.
- In effect r3 = 0x3e96 + 0x384e + 0x28 = 0x770c which is where our
key resides.
- The key is fdsl;mewrjope456fds4fbvfnjwaugfo

770c: 6c736466 # fdsl
7710: 77656d3b # ;mew
7714: 706f6a72 # rjop
7718: 36353465 # e456
771c: 34736466 # fds4
7720: 66766266 # fbvf
7724: 61776a6e # njwa
7728: 6f666775 # ugfo

- The algorithm uses 256 bits which is set in register r2 before the
call to aes_set_key(). The below instructions translate to r2 = 128
Left shift by 1 = 256
3860: 2280 movs r2, #128 ; 0x80
....
3866: 0052 lsls r2, r2, #1

- The same function i.e. aes_set_key() is called from DecryptData() as well.
- We also confirmed that the key is being used by the UDP service
listening on the device by simply running strings on it and we could
see the same string in the program. There are two binaries in the
device that use the key - kkeps_off and kkeps_on
- Output of $ strings kkeps_off

....
B$Bh0
pointer is null
pucOutputData too small
fdsl;mewrjope456fds4fbvfnjwaugfo
pucInputData dataLen is incorrect
pucOutPutData is too small
....

Hijacking the Smart Socket
---------------------------
Now that we have the encryption key lets go hijack the socket. Instead
of writing your own openssl wrapper for encryption/decryption, we can
simply use the native shared library to do the magic for us. A quick
look at the IDA output shows that EncryptData() and DecryptData() are
exported functions which means any native program can load libNDK_03
using dlopen() and family and can use these functions which is exactly
what we did.

IDA output
.text:000037D8 ; int EncryptData(unsigned __int8 *pucInputData, int
nInPutLen, unsigned __int8 *pucOutputData, int nOutputsize, int
*pnOutPutLen)
.text:000037D8 EXPORT EncryptData

But wait a minute! What if the user sets a password :O. Since, there
is an option called Encryption in the app (which actually means set a
password to be used between the app and the device communication and
not actually an encryption passphrase), if the user sets a password,
only that user will be able to control the device. Worry not! We
previously saw that the app sends the commands as UDP broadcasts to
port 27431. Which means anyone on the local network can sniff the
command packets. So all you need to do is:
1. nmap scan for UDP port 27431 on the network. When you find the
device note down its MAC address to be used in the request.
2. Encrypt and Send open/close request with default password string
i.e “nopassword”
3. Check the response
1. If response received with confirmation ID goto step 7
2. If no response received or response unknown goto step 4
4. Listen on (broadcast address) UDP port 27431 and sniff all requests.
5. Decrypt the request received and extract the password.
6. Encrypt and send open/close request with the extracted password.
7. Extract the confirmation ID from the response
8. Send the confirmation request to the device
9. Receive the acknowledgement response
10. The device has been successfully hijacked

Regards,
Payatu Research Team

Comments

RSS Feed Subscribe to this comment feed

No comments yet, be the first!

Login or Register to post a comment

File Archive:

February 2019

  • Su
  • Mo
  • Tu
  • We
  • Th
  • Fr
  • Sa
  • 1
    Feb 1st
    22 Files
  • 2
    Feb 2nd
    9 Files
  • 3
    Feb 3rd
    2 Files
  • 4
    Feb 4th
    15 Files
  • 5
    Feb 5th
    50 Files
  • 6
    Feb 6th
    24 Files
  • 7
    Feb 7th
    15 Files
  • 8
    Feb 8th
    6 Files
  • 9
    Feb 9th
    1 Files
  • 10
    Feb 10th
    1 Files
  • 11
    Feb 11th
    22 Files
  • 12
    Feb 12th
    25 Files
  • 13
    Feb 13th
    16 Files
  • 14
    Feb 14th
    32 Files
  • 15
    Feb 15th
    15 Files
  • 16
    Feb 16th
    10 Files
  • 17
    Feb 17th
    2 Files
  • 18
    Feb 18th
    27 Files
  • 19
    Feb 19th
    32 Files
  • 20
    Feb 20th
    7 Files
  • 21
    Feb 21st
    0 Files
  • 22
    Feb 22nd
    0 Files
  • 23
    Feb 23rd
    0 Files
  • 24
    Feb 24th
    0 Files
  • 25
    Feb 25th
    0 Files
  • 26
    Feb 26th
    0 Files
  • 27
    Feb 27th
    0 Files
  • 28
    Feb 28th
    0 Files

Top Authors In Last 30 Days

File Tags

Systems

packet storm

© 2019 Packet Storm. All rights reserved.

Services
Security Services
Hosting By
Rokasec
close